Colonial American History - The Atlantic and Pacific Worlds - New Spain and New France - British America

Chapter 2: Death on a Coastal Fringe (Parts 3-5) :: The Barbarous Years by Bernard Baylin

Response / Thought Quotes

  • “The three years that followed was a period of violent dissension within the tiny palisaded settlement, confusion of purpose, physical devastation, and the emergence of a permanent pattern of race conflict. Death was everywhere.”
  • “Smith, in his Elizabethan love of drama and pageantry, may have relished the feasts and ceremonies, but most of his contacts with the natives were ruthless raids on their villages to extract corn and other supplies for the starving settlers. When his demands were not met, he threatened murder, took hostages at gunpoint, “negotiated” by intimidation, and without hesitation seized from the natives precious supplies that were necessary for their tribes’ survival. Believing the Indians to be inherently barbarous, he attributed to them deceits and plots they did not have and provoked them in ways they did not understand.”
  • “Then the ultimate catastrophes began. A few of the “gastely and pale” inhabitants of the fort—we do not know how many—did “those things w[hi]ch seame incredible, as to digge upp deade corp[s]es outt of graves and to eate them … and some have Licked upp the Bloode w[hi]ch hathe fallen from their weake fellowes.” And even beyond that, Percy wrote, one man murdered his wife, “Ripped the Childe outt of her woambe … Chopped the Mother in pieces and sallted her for his foode.” Forced to confess “by torture haveinge hunge by the Thumbes w[i]th weightes att his feete a quarter of an howere,” the murderer was executed. Many of those who “To eate … did Runn away unto the Salvages” fared no better: “we never heard of [them] after”
  • “The Indians were not even bothering to attack the protected blockhouse since they assumed the people within it would shortly perish.”

Thought Questions

  • Summarize the founders of the Jamestown colony
  • How were the instructions from the corporation given to the Jamestown settlers?
  • What were the instructions given to the Jamestown settlers?
  • In what ways did the Jamestown founders react to and comply with the instructions they received?
  • Summarize what the Jamestown settlers found when they entered the James River
  • Describe the geography of the Jamestown location from human and military points of view
  • Describe the process of initial settlement at Jamestown
  • Specifically what were the instructions to the colonists about Native Americans and what does this reflect?
  • Specifically what was the attitude and intention of the colonists towards Native Americans
  • In what pragmatic ways did the Jamestown colony grow
  • What impact did Newport’s second mission have on Jamestown
  • In what ways did a détente develop between the Jamestown colonies and Native Americans? Why did this occur?
  • Describe Captain John Smith and the role he filled in Jamestown
  • Describe the interaction between Jamestown as a colony and the Powhatan confederacy during early settlement
  • Describe the interaction between John Smith and the Powhatans?
  • In what ways did John Smith set or illustrate a pattern of Euro-native conflict / cooperations
  • Why didn’t Powhatan destroy Jamestown once they became a security threat?
  • Compare and Contrast: the motives and intentions of the Jamestown “Settlers” and the Jamestown “Colonizers”
  • Describe the grey middle area between “Settler” and “Colonizer”
  • Describe the Jamestown settlers early attempts at horticulture and agriculture
  • Describe the Jamestown settlers early attempts at industry
  • Compare and Contrast: the quality of life in London and the quality of life in Jamestown
  • Compare and Contrast: the quality of life in Jamestown and the Powhatan villages
  • In what ways did the disparity in quality of life between Jamestown and Powhatan impact these societies and how did they react to this impact
  • Explain and Expand: “By such means a marginal survival was preserved”
  • Describe the events of Jamestown the winter John Smith was recalled to England
  • Who was Thomas Gates and what immediate impact did he have on Jamestown (to be continued…)
  • Compare and Contrast: Thomas Gates and John Smith (to be continued…)

Articles and Resources

Further Reading

 

Colonial American History - The Atlantic and Pacific Worlds - New Spain and New France - British America

Chapter 2: Death on a Coastal Fringe (Parts 1-2) :: The Barbarous Years – The Peopling of British North America: The Conflict of Civilizations, 1600-1675 by Bernard Bailyn

Response / Thought Quotes

  • “It was into this still-traditional though changing, animist, violently competitive, and delicately poised world, constantly beset by disbalancing shocks, that a small contingent of Englishmen arrived in 1607. They were people whose way of life, sensibilities, assumptions, skills, knowledge, social relations, and aspirations—their entire experience and view of the world and the universe—could scarcely have been more different from those of the people who watched their arrival from the shores of Chesapeake Bay.”
  • “Yet they were clearly barbarians”
  • “These mingled images of natives in the alien lands of the Atlantic world—advanced but satanic people whose wealth and labor could easily be exploited; simple, innocent, natural folk whose resources were as yet unknown and who could presumably be led, through Christianity, to higher stages of civilization; and brutish, debased people condemned by their animal-like wildness to live beyond an exclusionary pale—such visions had little in common except barbarousness, paganism, and the threat of dark mysteries as yet unrevealed. The inconsistency of these images would in itself prove to be a force in race relations in North America.”
  • “It is less surprising that the annals of their sojourn in America record endless turmoil and conflict—that they were hopelessly improvident and constantly engaged in quarrels among themselves and in deadly warfare with the natives—than that the settlement they led survived at all.”

Thought Questions

  • Explain and Expand: “Spirit existed, mind existed, not as a part of the shared physical world but apart from it; these were unique attributes of humanity.”
  • Explain and Expand: “Their relation to the land was the heart of their world.”
  • Compare and Contrast: The living conditions for working / working poor in Britain and the Native Americans they encountered in moving to America
  • How did Elizabeth’s long reign impact British colonialism?
  • Describe the “British ideology of empire”
  • Who was Richard Hakluyt and how did he impact British colonialism
  • Explain and Expand: “The dominant energizing force in the early seventeenth century, however, was the newly empowered commercial organizations”
  • Compare and Contrast: the goals and motivations of the English landed class and the English merchant class
  • Who was Humphrey Gilbert and how did he impact British colonialism
  • React and Respond: “The image that informed Englishmen had of the American Indian population on the eve of permanent settlement in America was an inconsistent blend of notions derived from scattered sources, all of which reinforced an assumption of immense European superiority in religion, culture, power, and capacity.”
  • How did British views of the pre-historic Picts impact their views of Native Americans? “how that the inhabitants of the great Brettanie have bin in times past as savvage as those of Virginia.”
  • In what ways did the English experience in Ireland impact their actions in America? “The “wild Irish” were said by would-be colonizers in the 1560s to be godless.”
  • Explain and Expand: “they both lived in worlds that were at least in part experienced as magical.”
  • React and Respond: “For the English, magic and witchcraft were not abnormal and extraordinary but commonplace and realistic, and that would be especially true in North America, for that distant land was known to be “one of the dark places of the earth,” one of the “wild partes” ultimately ruled by Satan and his minions; there the native priests were known to be “no other but such as our witches are.””
  • Explain and Expand: “was from this advanced, modernizing world, still in many ways close to its medieval origins, that the first English colonists in North America were drawn.”
  • Describe the two groups of English settlers that left for North America in 1606
  • Describe the characteristics of the group of English colonizers that landed at Jamestown
  • Who were the leaders of the Jamestown colony and what skills did they bring to the settlement?
  • Who was Christopher Newport and what impact did he have on colonization in America?
  • Who was Bartholomew Gosnold and what impact did he have on colonization of America
  • Who was George Kendall and what impact did he have on colonization in America?
  • Who was John Smith and what was his life experience before coming to Jamestown
  • What was the significance of the pamphlet “Good News from Virginia”
  • Explain and Expand: “In the first years of Virginia’s European history these representatives of England’s affluent intelligentsia would explore the Indians’ world, report on it, attempt to understand it and to conceive ways of exploiting it.”

Primary Sources

 

Colonial American History - The Atlantic and Pacific Worlds - New Spain and New France - British America

Introduction and Chapter 1: The Americans :: The Barbarous Years by Bernard Bailyn

Response / Thought Quotes

  • “They lived crowded lives … no less real for being invisible”
  • “The question for the leaders of the native American peoples on the eve of the English settlements—still confident, still hopeful for the future—was not how to destroy the invaders and wipe out the pathologies they brought with them, but how to use the strangers and their goods within the traditional culture, how to absorb the apparent benefits of European civilization, which they had so far found merely attractive but which would soon become useful, and ultimately indispensable.”

Thought Questions

  • What does the author hope to tell the reader about “The Barbarous Years” in the introduction
  • Explain and Expand: “They lived crowded lives” and “no less real for being invisible”
  • Compare and Contrast: The impact of European settlement on the Algonquians and the Iroquois
  • How was Native culture especially susceptible to disruption by European cultures?
  • Compare and Contrast: Societies formed around stability and balance and Societies formed around change and progress
  • Explain and Expand: The conflict between Societies formed around stability and balance and Societies formed around change and progress
  • What institutions and social structures underpinned Native American stability and balance
  • Compare and Contrast: Native American conceptions of spirit and religion with European (specifically English Protestant) conceptions of spirit and religion
  • Compare and Contrast: the role of masculinity in Native and European culture
  • Describe the role violence played in the lives of Native Americans
  • How did the role of violence impact the stability of Native American society
  • Describe some of the common living attributes of eastern seaboard Native Americans
  • Describe how “east coast networks” of transportation and communication impacted Native American communities
  • How did the insertion of land “ownership” disrupt the transportation and communication networks of Native Americans
  • What were the two major language groups of eastern woodland / seaboard Native Americans?
  • Describe the life circumstances and community structure of Powhattan society at the time of the arrival of the English
  • What was the Iroquois Confederacy
  • Describe the structure of Native American tribes in Southern New England
  • In what ways had the fur trade impacted Native Americans of “British American” before the arrival of the English?

Further Reading

 

 

Colonial American History - The Atlantic and Pacific Worlds - New Spain and New France - British America

Chapter 19: The Pacific (Part 2: The Islands and the Northwest Coast) :: The American Colonies by Alan Taylor

Response / Thought Quotes

  • “Cook ruefully discovered that “there was not a blade of grass that had not a separate owner.” He concluded that “no people had higher ideas of exclusive property.””

Thought Questions

  • Describe the 17-18th century European mythology about the Pacific
  • Who was Ferdinand Megellan
  • Describe the colonization of the Philippines
  • Where did the Philippines fit into the Spanish colonial trade system?
  • Who was Captain James Cook?
  • Explain and Expand: “Although serving an imperial agenda, the sojourning scientists were also observant and often sympathetic men affected by their encounters with new cultures.”
  • Explain and Expand: “The Hawaiian people were the farthest extension of the great northeastward migration of the Polynesians, which began in Indonesia about two thousand years ago.”
  • Describe Pre-Contact Hawaiian culture and the post contact transformation
  • Who were the “Raincoast Natives” and how and why were they culturally different from most Native Americans?
  • Describe the scientific, geographic and cultural knowledge that James Cook documented
  • In what ways did the natural abundance of the Pacific Northwest positively and negatively impact Native Americans?
  • How did the Hawaiian islands become a nexus for Pacific trade?

Primary Sources

Articles and Resources

Further Reading

Colonial American History - The Atlantic and Pacific Worlds - New Spain and New France - British America

Chapter 18: Imperial Wars :: American Colonies by Alan Taylor

Response / Thought Quotes

  • “The importance of the Indians is now generally known and understood. A Doubt remains not, that the prosperity of our Colonies on the Continent will stand or fall with our Interest and favour among them. While they are our Friends, they are the Cheapest and Strongest Barrier for the Protection of our Settlements; when Enemies, they are capable of ravaging in their method of War, in spite of all we can do, to render those Possessions almost useless.”
  • “They are really better to us than we are to them. They always give us food at their quarters, and take care we are armed against Hunger and Thirst. We do not do so by them, but let them walk by our Doors hungry, and do not often relieve them. We look upon them with scorn and disdain, and think them little better than Beasts in human shape, though, if well examined, we shall find that, for all our religion and education, we possess more moral deformities and evils than these savages do, or are acquainted with.”
  • “Persuaded of their usefulness to the colony (which is true), more often than not they are so boastful as to greet our hospitable treatment with complaints. … Indeed, I could carry on forever were I to convey the ceaseless importunities with which they try us. … Still, one has to admit that their continued forays against the enemy have bred such horror as to prevent—for the time being—plots against the colony from bearing fruit.”
  • “Brethren, are you ignorant of the difference between our Father [the French] and the English? Go and see the forts our Father has created, and you will see that the land beneath their walls is still hunting ground, … whilst the English, on the contrary, no sooner get possession of a country than the game is forced to leave; the trees fall down before them, the earth becomes bare.”
  • “We tell you now [that] the French never conquered us, neither did they purchase a foot of our Country, nor have they a right to give it to you. We gave them liberty to settle for which they always rewarded us & treated us with great Civility. … [I]f you expect to keep these Posts, we will expect to have proper returns from you.”
  • “Safe from the Enemy of the Wilderness, safe from the griping Hand of arbitrary Sway and cruel Superstition; Here shall be the late founded Seat of Peace and Freedom. Here shall our indulgent Mother [Country], who has most generously rescued and protected us, be served and honoured by growing Numbers, with all Duty, Love, and Gratitude, till Time shall be no more.”
  • “This we apprehend annihilates our charter right to govern and tax ourselves. It strikes at our British privileges which, as we have never forfeited them, we hold in common with our fellow subjects who are natives of Britain. If taxes are laid upon us in any shape without ever having a legal representation where they are laid, are we not reduced from the character of free subjects to the miserable state of tributary slaves?”
  • “Let them with three-fourths of the People of Ireland, live the Year round on Potatoes and Butter Milk, without Shirts, then may their Merchants export Beef, Butter, and Linnen. Let them with the Generality of the Common People of Scotland go Barefoot, then may they make large Exports in Shoes and Stockings. And if they will be content to wear Rags like the Spinners and Weavers of England, they may make Cloths and Stuffs for all Parts of the World.”
  • “As soon as the time stipulated in their indentures is expired, they immediately quit their masters and get a small tract of land, in settling which for the first three or four years they lead miserable lives, and in the most abject poverty. But all this is patiently borne and submitted to with the greatest cheerfulness, the satisfaction of being land holders smooths every difficulty and makes them prefer this manner of living to that comfortable subsistence which they could procure for themselves and their families by working at the trades in which they were brought up.”

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Colonial American History - The Atlantic and Pacific Worlds - New Spain and New France - British America

Chapter 17: The Great Plains 1680–1800 :: The American Colonies by Alan Taylor

Notes: This chapter is effectively a continuation of Chapters 3-5, 16 and the material from there should be considered while reading this chapter.

Response / Thought Quotes

  • “In sum, the Great Plains exacerbated the paradoxical impact of colonialism so manifest throughout North America. In general, the effects of colonial intrusion—germs, weeds, livestock, soldiers, missionaries, and trade—spread far and wide, extending beyond imperial control and affecting native peoples in wildly unanticipated ways.”
  • “Their own word lakota means “allies,” but their foes, including the French, called them the Sioux, which meant “enemies.”
  • “The warriors rode three times round the village; and as each noted champion passed, the old women would scream out his name, to honor his bravery, and excite the emulation of the younger warriors. Little urchins, not two years old, followed the warlike pageant with glittering eyes, and gazed with eager admiration at the heroes of their tribe.”
  • “Holding a bow in one hand and an arrow in the other, [the mothers] sang near the bodies of their sons an air both gay and martial, thanking them for having given them the satisfaction of seeing them die at the hands of the enemy while fighting valiantly for the defense of their country, a death a thousand times preferable to the fate of him who on a wretched mat expires consumed by some deadly disease.”
  • “They told me this Reason for it, that they had lost the Use of their Bows and Arrows by having Guns so long amongst them, and when they were disappointed of Powder [&] Shott, … their Enemies found They had no Guns to Defend themselves with [and] made Warr Upon them & Destr[o]y[e]d above 100 Tents [of] Men, Women, and Children.”
  • “By combining Hispanic horses with French guns, many native bands reinvented themselves as buffalo-hunting nomads, which brought them unprecedented prosperity and power.”
  • “Possessing a spiritual rather than a scientific imagination, the natives believed that the buffalo swarmed like bees from subterranean hives every spring, and that their annual numbers depended primarily upon human rituals that managed their relationship with the supernatural.”
  • “As with all Native American religions, the villagers subscribed to a profound dualism that reflected upon the alternation of death and life, construction and destruction, reproduction and disintegration in their nature”

Thought Questions

  • Explain and Expand: “As with all Native American religions, the villagers subscribed to a profound dualism that reflected upon the alternation of death and life, construction and destruction, reproduction and disintegration in their nature”
  • React and Respond: “Here in short, is gathered everything possible for trade and barter with these barbarians in exchange for deer and buffalo hides, and what is saddest, in exchange for Indian slaves, men and women, small and large, a great multitude of both sexes, for they are gold and silver and the richest treasure for the governors, who gorge themselves first with the largest mouthfuls from this table, while the rest eat the crumbs.”
  • Explain and Expand: “Hispanic New Mexico depended for survival upon both alliance with the Pueblo peoples of the Rio Grande and war with the nomads of the western Great Plains and southern Rocky Mountains.”
  • In what ways did the oppression of Native Americans impact Hispanic New Mexico?
  • What was the nature and purpose of the settlements at El Paso and Santa Fe?
  • How did the Spanish view their settlements in El Norte and the Southern plains?
  • Describe the three-way competition between the British, French and Spanish to exploit Native Americans
  • Compare and Contrast: The French and British interaction with Native Americans in the Northern Plains
  • Compare and Contrast: The French and Spanish interaction with Native Americans in the Southern Plains and El Norte
  • Describe how the manipulations of Native Americans by European settlements impacted their societies?
  • Describe the role firearms, horses and alcohol played in the destruction of pre contact Native American society?
  • Describe the purposes Europeans had in introducing firearms into Native American society?
  • What policies in New Spain made El Norte and the Southern Plains a trade “backwater” in the Spanish Empire.
  • What role did Vera Cruz play in Spanish Mexico?
  • Explain and Expand: “the Great Plains exacerbated the paradoxical impact of colonialism so manifest throughout North America”
  • Compare and Contrast: The Southern Great Plains and the Northern Plains
  • Compare and Contrast: The Eastern Great Plains and the Western Plains
  • Compare and Contrast: Nomadic Native Americans and stationary Native Americans
  • Describe the river systems of the Great Plains
  • Compare and Contrast: the role of the Missouri River and the role of the Mississippi River in European settlement
  • Who were the Genízaros and what role did they play in relations between Native Americans and Europeans on the Great Plains and El Norte?
  • Compare and Contrast: African Slavery with Native American Slavery
  • Compare and Contrast: French Native American slavery and Spanish Native American slavery
  • How did Hispanic peoples develop in El Norte and the Great Plains?
  • Compare and Contrast: Relations between Europeans and the Pueblo and the Apache
  • Explain and Expand: “Two horses and a few knives could usually purchase an adolescent Indian girl—the preferred commodity of the slave trade. Male captives were worth half as much.”
  • Compare and Contrast: How gender impacted Native American slavery and African American slavery
  • React and Respond: “Their own word lakota means “allies,” but their foes, including the French, called them the Sioux, which meant “enemies.””
  • Explain and Expand: “The horse-centered way of life proved a mixed blessing for women.”
  • Explain and Expand: “Environmentally, the horse-centered way of life was highly unstable.”
  • Compare and Contrast: The Spanish Mission system in California, New Mexico and Texas
  • Describe “Missions”, “Presidios” and “Pueblos”
  • How did Spanish colonialism change in Alta California, El Norte and the Southern Plains after the 1770s?
  • Explain and Expand: “In contrast to the aggressive French traders, who ventured deep into Indian country, the British factors cautiously stuck to their posts beside the bay”

Articles and Resources

Colonial American History - The Atlantic and Pacific Worlds - New Spain and New France - British America

Week 6 :: American Nations By Colin Woodard Chapter 6: The Colonies’ First Revolt

Response / Thought Quotes

  • “Puritan property titles were declared null and void, forcing landowners to buy new ones from the crown and to pay feudal rents to the king in perpetuity.”
  • “All of this was done without the consent of the governed, in violation of the rights granted all Englishmen under the Magna Carta.”
  • “no more privileges left . . . [other] than not to be sold for slaves.”
  • “a conquered people could not expect the same rights as English people.”

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Primary Source Document

The Magna Carta (The Great Charter) – June 15, 1215

Primary SourcePreamble: John, by the grace of God, king of England, lord of Ireland, duke of Normandy and Aquitaine, and count of Anjou, to the archbishop, bishops, abbots, earls, barons, justiciaries, foresters, sheriffs, stewards, servants, and to all his bailiffs and liege subjects, greetings. Know that, having regard to God and for the salvation of our soul, and those of all our ancestors and heirs, and unto the honor of God and the advancement of his holy Church and for the rectifying of our realm, we have granted as underwritten by advice of our venerable fathers, Stephen, archbishop of Canterbury, primate of all England and cardinal of the holy Roman Church, Henry, archbishop of Dublin, William of London, Peter of Winchester, Jocelyn of Bath and Glastonbury, Hugh of Lincoln, Walter of Worcester, William of Coventry, Benedict of Rochester, bishops; of Master Pandulf, subdeacon and member of the household of our lord the Pope, of brother Aymeric (master of the Knights of the Temple in England), and of the illustrious men William Marshal, earl of Pembroke, William, earl of Salisbury, William, earl of Warenne, William, earl of Arundel, Alan of Galloway (constable of Scotland), Waren Fitz Gerold, Peter Fitz Herbert, Hubert De Burgh (seneschal of Poitou), Hugh de Neville, Matthew Fitz Herbert, Thomas Basset, Alan Basset, Philip d’Aubigny, Robert of Roppesley, John Marshal, John Fitz Hugh, and others, our liegemen.

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Colonial American History - The Atlantic and Pacific Worlds - New Spain and New France - British America

Week 19 :: The American Colonies By Alan Taylor Chapter 16: French America (Part 2)

Settlers and Native Americas

Response / Thought Quotes

  • “A man with his wife or his partner clears a little ground, builds himself a house on four piles, covers it with sheets of bark, and plants corn and rice for his provisions; the next year he raises a little more for food, and has also a field of tobacco; if at last he succeeds in having three or four Negroes, then he is out of his difficulties.”
  • “Louisiana officials routinely used torture to execute white soldiers and indentured servants.”
  • “It is known that this country … was formerly the most densely populated with Indians, but at present of these prodigious quantities of different nations one sees only pitiful remnants … which are diminishing every day because of the different diseases that the Europeans have brought into the country and which were formerly unknown to the Indians.”
  • “Why did the French come into our country? Before they came, did we not live better than we do [now], seeing we deprive ourselves of a part of our corn, our game, and fish, to give a part to them? … In fine, before the arrival of the French, we lived like men who can be satisfied with what they have; whereas at this day we are like slaves, who are not suffered to do as they please.”
  • “As long as the Chickasaws exist we shall always have to fear that they shall entice away the others from us in favor of the English. The entire destruction of this hostile nation therefore becomes every day more necessary to our interests, and I am going to exert all diligence to accomplish it.”
  • “The Trade with the Indians is a necessary commerce; and even if the colonists were able to manage without it, the State is virtually forced to maintain it, if it wishes to maintain Peace. … There is no middle course; one must have the natives either as friend or foe; and whoever wants him as friend, must furnish him with his necessities at conditions which allow him to procure them.”

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Week 18 :: The American Colonies by Alan Taylor Chapter 16: French America (Part 1)

 

Response / Thought Quotes

  • “There are so many strong and robust peasants in France who have no bread to put in their mouths; is it possible that they are so afraid of losing sight of the village steeple, as they say, that they would rather languish in their misery and poverty, than to place themselves some day at their ease among the inhabitants of New France?”
  • Compare and Contrast the living circumstances of New England farmers and North East Caradian farmers in the late 17th century
  • “They are everywhere. They will stay hidden behind a stump for ten days, existing on nothing but a handful of corn, waiting to kill a man, or a woman. It is the cruelest war in the world. They are not content to burn the houses, they also burn the prisoners they take, and give them death only after torturing them continually in the most cruel manner they can devise.” 
  • “We should never delude ourselves that our colonies on the continent … could ever rival the neighbouring English colonies in wealth, nor even be commercially very lucrative, for with the exception of the fur trade, the extent of which is limited and the profits continually declining, these colonies can furnish only goods similar to those of Europe at higher prices and of poorer quality.” 
  • “The ordinary habitants would be scandalized to be called peasants. In fact, they are of a better stuff, have more wit, more education, than those of France. This comes from their paying no taxes, that they have the right to hunt and fish, and that they live in a sort of independence.” 
  • “The inhabitants of Canada, even the ordinary man, surpasses in politeness by far those people who live in these English provinces. … On entering one of the peasants’ houses, no matter where, and on beginning to talk with the men or women, one is quite amazed at the good breeding and courteous answers which are received, no matter what the question is.” 
  • “I have been unable to ascertain the exact number because everyone associated with them covers up for them.” 
  • “Father: It is not the same with us as with you. When you command, all the French obey and go to war. But I shall not be heeded and obeyed by my nation in a like manner. Therefore, I cannot answer except for myself and for those immediately allied or related to me.” 

Thought Questions

  • Explain and Expand: “As Britain’s principal colonial rivals, the Canadian French found paradoxical strengths in their weaknesses:”
  • Describe the founding of Louisiana 
  • What was going on in France in the late 17th century and how did this impact North America?
  • Who was Robert Cavelier de La Salle? 
  • Describe the relationship(s) between the British, British Colonials, Native Americans and French
  • Who were the French Seigneurs and what was the Canadian Seigneurial System?
  • What was the cultural relationship between Canadian Seigneurs and Upstate New York “Gentry”?
  • Compare and Contrast the immigration patterns to New France with the patterns to British America
  • Describe the nature and scope of New France in 1690
  • How does the French experience in America symbolize the transformation of individuals from “peasants” to freemen(persons)?
  • What conditions facilitated to the transformation of Canadians from French “peasants” to freemen(persons)
  • Explain and Expand: “The English colonist amasses means and makes no superfluous expense; the French enjoys what he has and often parades what he has not.”
  • Compare and Contrast the Women and Religion in New England and New France
  • Describe the development of the valley between Montreal and Quebec 
  • Compare and Contrast the natures of the British and French colonies
  • Describe the internecine warfare among Native Americans and the colonial factors that impacted them in(to) conflict
  • Who were the “coureurs de bois” and how did they impact the balance of power between the French, British and Colonials and the Native Americans? 

Articles and Resources

Further Reading

 

Week 6 :: American Nations by Colin Woodard Chapter 5: Founding New Netherland

 

Response / Thought Quotes

  • “In 1654, a boatload of penniless Jewish war refugees from the Dutch colony of Brazil was met with hostility from the anti-Semitic governor, Peter Stuyvesant, who called them a “deceitful race” and tried to cast them from the colony.”
  • “When Stuyvesant tried to limit Quaker immigration (“this new unheard of, abominable heresy”), the people of Flushing protested, writing that “the law of love, peace and liberty in the states extends to Jews, Turks [i.e., Muslims] and Egyptians [Gypsies], which is the glory of the outward state of Holland.””
  • “not force people’s consciences but allow every one to have his own belief, as long as he behaves quietly and legally, gives no offense to his neighbors, and does not oppose the government.”
  • “Offending the five tribes of the Iroquois nation would have been not only suicidal but also bad for business” 

Thought Questions

  • In what ways is the Dutch influence largely the “reason New York is New York”?
  • What is the difference between the Netherlands and Holland?
  • Why was Holland a center for refugee émigré intellectuals and religious dissenters?
  • Describe the Dutch community at Leiden
  • What reasons did the Dutch have for founding New Netherland and how did this impact the character of the colony?
  • Compare and Contrast the tolerance and freedom found in the New Netherland colony with the form of government found in the colony
  • How did self-interest and enlightened thinking impact the government of New Netherland?
  • Explain and Expand: “The Dutch trait of tolerance was just that. They didn’t celebrate diversity but tolerated”
  • Describe the Dutch West India Company. 
  • What role did the slave trade play in Dutch colonialism? 
  • How did New Amsterdam’s European relations unique among the American colonies?
  • How was the colony of New York created?
  • Who was James the Duke of York? How did the accession of James II impact Colonial America?

Primary Sources

Articles and Resources

Further Reading

 

Week 5 :: American Nations by Colin Woodard : Chapter 4: Founding Yankeedom

Response / Thought Quotes

  • “These men possessed, in proportion to their number, a greater mass of intelligence than is to be found in any European nation of our own time,” the French aristocrat Alexis de Tocqueville wrote of early New England in 1835. “All, perhaps without exception, had received a good education and many of them were well known in Europe for their talents and achievements.”
  • “Here were the kernels of the twin political ideologies of America’s imperial age: American Exceptionalism and Manifest Destiny.” 

Thought Questions

  • Who were the founders of “Yankeedom”?
  • Compare and Contrast the founders of Yankeedom with those of Tidewater
  • Compare and Contrast the settlers of Yankeedom with those of Tidewater
  • How did the role of religious faith impact Yankeedom and how was it different from Tidewater?
  • In what ways was Yankeedom influenced by millenarian and utopia? 
  • In what sense did Yankeedom become a seed bed for Manifest Destiny and American Exceptionalism? 
  • In what ways did the founders of Yankeedom see themselves as a “chosen people” or “covenant people”?
  • How did ideas of collective responsibility and communal accountability impact Yankeedom?
  • Compare and Contrast the East Anglians and the West Country Gentlemen
  • How did the English Civil War impact Yankeedom?

Primary Sources

Articles and Resources

 

Week 4 :: American Nations by Colin Woodard : Chapter 3: Tidewater

Note: There is an unfortunate (but not substantive in this context) error in the beginning to the chapter. Captain Christopher Newport arrived with settlers, not John Smith who had arrived already with the first settlers. Smith had become the effective leader (but not President of the Council) of Jamestown when Bartholomew Gosnold fell sick and died 22 August 1607

Thought Questions

  • Compare and Contrast the Tidewater settlement by the English with what happened in New France and El Norte
  • What role did the experience of Irish colonization and subjugation play in the Tidewater colonization? 
  • What two events changed the trajectory of Tidewater society?
  • How and along what lines did Tidewater society become stratified? 
  • Compare and Contrast the forced labor systems and the methods of coercion in the Tidewater for Europeans, Native Americans and Africans
  • Compare and Contrast the development of Maryland with Virginia
  • What vision did the white planter class have for Virginia and Maryland society?
  • What vision did the white laboring class have for Virginia and Maryland society? 
  • Compare and Contrast the relationships that existed between the white laboring class and the enslaved black class with the relationship between the white laboring class and Native Americans in Yankeedom
  • How did such a tyrannical society produce some of the greatest champions of republicanism, such as Thomas Jefferson, George Washington, and James Madison?
  • How was “independence” and “liberty” defined in the Tidewater and how did this definition impact different classes within Tidewater society?

Articles and Resources

Primary Sources

 

Week 3 :: American Nations by Colin Woodard : Chapter 2: New France

Thought Questions

  • How did the initial colonization of Acadia proceed?
  • Compare and Contrast the expectations of Colonialists and settlers in early New France to those of el Norte New Spain 
  • Compare and Contrast the goals of Colonialists and settlers in early New France to those of el Norte New Spain
  • Compare and Contrast the methods of Colonialists and settlers in early New France to those of el Norte New Spain
  • Compare and Contrast the how the expectations, goals and methods of Colonialists and settlers impacted Native Americans in early New France and el Norte New Spain
  • Who were the Native American and French leaders of early New France?
  • What role did religion play in early New France and how does it compare to religion in el Norte New Spain?
  • How was gender balance achieved in New France? 
  • How was the process of assimilation important in New France?
  • How does the author address the issue of the balance of power between Native Americans and Europeans in New Spain and New France?

Response / Thought Quotes

  • “By contrast, the gentlemen treated the Indians as equals, inviting them to their feasts and plays. “They sat at table, eating and drinking like ourselves,” Champlain wrote of their chiefs. “And we were glad to see them while, on the contrary, their absence saddened us, as happened three or four times when they all went away to the places wherein they knew that there was hunting.” The French, in turn, were invited to Mi’kmaq festivals, which featured speeches, smoking, and dance, social customs Champlain and his colleagues were quick to adopt.”

Articles and Resources

 

Week 2 :: American Nations by Colin Woodard : Chapter 1: Founding El Norte

Thought Questions

  • What is the general geographic region and characteristics of El Norte?
  • Who were the Native Americans of El Norte? 
  • Who were the European settlers that founded El Norte?
  • How did Spanish settlement spread in North America?
  • How was the Catholic faith central in the Spanish settlement of El Norte?
  • In what ways does El Norte impact other American nations?

Response / Thought Quotes

  • “This virulent anti-Spanish feeling became deeply ingrained in the cultures of Yankeedom, Appalachia, Tidewater, and the Deep South.”
  • “As a result, Spain’s colonies in El Norte—especially Nuevo México, Texas, Alta California, and northern Sonora—were undermanned, poorly supplied, and staggeringly poor, even by Spanish colonial standards.”
  • “Between 1598 and 1794 the Spanish established at least eighteen missions in what is now the state of New Mexico, twenty-six in what is now Texas, eight in Arizona, and twenty-one in Alta California—in the process founding what have since become the cities of Tucson, San Antonio, San Diego, and San Francisco.”

 

Week 1 :: American Nations by Colin Woodard : Introduction

Thought Questions

  • How does the author use concepts from Cultural geographers to explore history?
  • What is the main thesis of the book? 
  • What geography does the book cover and exclude? Why does the author make this choice? 
  • What are the eleven regions outlined in the Introduction and what are their characteristics and non-American origins 
  • How does the author organize the main body of his book?

Response / Thought Quotes

  • “America’s most essential and abiding divisions are not between red states and blue states, conservatives and liberals, capital and labor, blacks and whites, the faithful and the secular. Rather, our divisions stem from this fact: the United States is a federation comprised of the whole or part of eleven regional nations, some of which truly do not see eye to eye with one another.”
  • “I’ve also intentionally chosen not to discuss several other nations that influence the continent but whose core territories lie outside what is now the United States and Canada. Cuban-dominated South Florida is the financial and transportation hub of the Spanish-speaking Caribbean. Hawaii is part of the greater Polynesian cultural nation and was once a nation-state of its own. Central Mexico and Central America are, of course, part of the North American continent and include perhaps a halfdozen distinct nations—Hispano-Aztec, Greater Mayan, Anglo-Creole, and so on. There are even scholars who make persuasive arguments that African American culture constitutes the periphery of a larger Creole nation with its core in Haiti and a domain extending over much of the Caribbean basin and on to Brazil. These regional cultures are certainly worthy of exploration, but as a practical matter, a line needed to be drawn somewhere.” 

Week 4 :: 1491 by Charles C. Mann, Chapter 5: Pleistocene Wars

Response / Thought Quotes 

  • “Many natives, seeking to categorize the newcomers, were open to the possibility that they might belong to the realm of the supernatural.” 
  • “Acosta weighed the Indians-as-Jews theory but eventually dismissed it because Indians were not circumcised.”
  • “Because Clovis was so dry, its stratigraphy—the sequence of geological layers—had not been jumbled up by later waterflow, a common archaeological hazard.” 
  • “Clovis culture had a distinctive set of tools: scrapers, spear-straighteners, hatchetlike choppers, crescent-moon-shaped objects whose function remains unknown.” 

Thought Questions

  • In what ways has science increased our understanding of history?
  • What are some of the theories about the origins of Native Americans?
  • How did the folklore of the “lost tribes” of Israel impact beliefs about the origins of Native Americans?
  • Explain and Expand: “As a rule, Indians were theologically prepared for the existence of Europeans.” 
  • Explain and Expand: “Contact with Indians caused Europeans considerably more consternation.”
  • Who was José de Acosta and what contribution did he make to understanding the origins of Native Americans?
  • Describe the Clovis civilization(s)
  • Describe the three-migrations theory

Primary Sources

Articles and Resources

Further Reading

 

Week 3 :: 1491, Chapter 4: Frequently Asked Questions

Response / Thought Quotes 

  • “The window opened and slammed shut. When the French came in and the record opened up again, it was a transformed reality. A civilization crumbled. The question is, how did this happen?” 
  • “De Soto’s company was too small to be an effective biological weapon. Sicknesses like measles and smallpox would have burned through his six hundred men long before they reached the Mississippi. But that would not have been true for his pigs.” 
  • “That’s one reason whites think of Indians as nomadic hunters,” Russell Thornton, an anthropologist at the University of California at Los Angeles, said to me. “Everything else—all the heavily populated urbanized societies—was wiped out.” 
  • “the errors multiply each other and can escalate rapidly to an unacceptable magnitude.” 
  • “When the Spanish governor tried to recruit the Hopi to live in missions, their leaders told him not to bother: the epidemic soon would expunge them from the earth.”
  • “Europeans were well versed in the brutal logic of quarantine. When plague appeared, they boarded up houses and fled to the countryside. By contrast, the historian Neal Salisbury observed, family and friends in Indian New England gathered at the sufferer’s bedside to wait out the illness, a practice that “could only have served to spread the disease more rapidly.””
  • “Cultures are like books, the anthropologist Claude Lévi-Strauss once remarked, each a volume in the great library of humankind. In the sixteenth century, more books were burned than ever before or since.”
  • “Can there be anything more magnificent than that this barbarian lord should have all the things to be found under the heavens in his domain, fashioned in gold and silver and jewel and feathers? And so realistic in gold and silver that no smith in the world could have done better? And in jewels so fine that it is impossible to imagine with what instruments they were cut so perfectly? … In Spain there is nothing to compare with it.”
  • “For wherever the Spaniards have passed, conquering and discovering, it is as though a fire had gone, destroying everything in its path.” 

Thought Questions

  • Who was Hernando De Soto, what was his background in Peru and describe his passage through the future Southeast United States
  • Who was Hernán Cortés, what was his background and describe the role he played in the destruction of Native America
  • Who was Pizarro to Tawantinsuyu, what was his background and what role did he play in the destruction of Native America
  • Explain and Expand: “He sailed to Florida with six hundred soldiers, two hundred horses, and three hundred pigs.”
  • What role did domesticated animals play in the lives of pre-contact Native Americans?
  • How did European domesticated animals interact with Native American domesticated animals and what where the consequences?
  • Who were the Caddo and Coosa and what was their experience with European raiders
  • What was the French reaction to the De Soto attack on Native America? 
  • Describe the challenges associated with estimating pre-contact Native American populations and post-contact death rates
  • What are “Virgin Soil” epidemics?
  • Compare and Contrast virgin soil epidemics in Europe, Siberia and Native America
  • Describe some of the challenges archaeologists face in interpreting evidence about Native America?
  • How does living norms and environmental factors impact Native American archeology?
  • Given the rebuttals, why have the majority of researchers nonetheless become High Counters? 
  • Why hypothesize the existence of vast, super-deadly pandemics that seem unlike anything else in the historical record? 
  • Explain and Expand: “The implication, implausible at first glance, was that Indians in their virgin-soil state were more vulnerable to European diseases than virgin-soil Europeans would have been.”
  • Describe the distinction between different types of disease susceptibility. 
  • React and Respond: “But the native population as a whole had a “very limited spectrum of responses.” And that, he said, “could be a real problem in the right circumstances.” For Indians, those circumstances arrived with Columbus.”
  • Explain the relationship between indigenous Siberians and Native Americans
  • Describe the social and psychological impact on survivors of virgin soil epidemics
  • Compare and Contrast the epidemics of the 1770s and 1780s,with earlier epidemics
  • Who were the Mexica and what role did they play in the “Triple Alliance”?
  • Who was Bernardino de Sahagún and how did he develop his “Histories”?
  • Describe Teotihuacan and the Toltecs. 
  • Who was Tlacaelel and what role did he play in the Aztec Empire? 
  • Describe the myths and realities of human sacrifice and ceremonial public slaughter in Europe and the Aztec Empire
  • Expand and Explain: “Weighing loss of such scale, one naturally wants to identify and denounce the responsible party.”
  • Who was Bartolomé de las Casas?
  • React and Respond: “Europe’s defenders argue that the mass deaths cannot be described as genocide. The epidemics often were not even known to Europeans, still less deliberately caused by them.”
  • React and Respond: “Not so fast, say the activists. Europeans may not have known about microbes, but they thoroughly understood infectious disease. … Coming from places that had suffered many such experiences, Europeans fully grasped the potential consequences of smallpox.”
  • React and Respond: “The conquistadors knew the potential impact of disease, but its actual impact, which they could not control, was in the hands of God.” 

Articles and References

Further Reading

 

Week 2 :: 1491 by Charles C. Mann Chapter 2: Why Billington Survived and Chapter 3: In the Land of Four Quarters

 

Chapters 2 and 3 are part one and two of a single story comparing two very different societies the Native Americans of Southern New England and the Native Americans of Peru. 

Chapter 2: Thought Questions

  • What attitudes and beliefs dominated the Wampanoag and the New English about the other? 
  • How were the attitudes and beliefs held by the Wampanoag and the New English counterproductive to a cultural understanding? 
  • In what ways did the Wampanoag hope to benefit from and control their relationship with the New English? 
  • In what ways did the New English hope to benefit from and control their relationship with the Wampanoag?
  • How were the living conditions of the Wampanoag and New English similar? Why did they fail to see these similarities?
  • In what ways were the living conditions of the Wampanoag and New English mutually exclusive of the other?
  • In what ways did the Wampanoag and New English impact their natural environment? 
  • Compare and Contrast the gender and generation roles of the Wampanoag and New English 

Chapter 2: Response / Thought Quotes 

  • “Second, although the stories of early contact—the Wampanoag with the English, the Inka with the Spaniards—are as dissimilar as their protagonists, many archaeologists, anthropologists, and historians have recently come to believe that they have deep commonalities.”
  • “The Mi’kmaq in New Brunswick and Nova Scotia scoffed at the notion of European superiority. If Christian civilization was so wonderful, why were its inhabitants all trying to settle somewhere else?”
  • “Massasoit shepherded his people through the wave of settlement, and the pact he signed with Plymouth lasted for more than fifty years. Only in 1675 did one of his sons, angered at being pushed around by colonists’ laws, launch what was perhaps an inevitable attack. Indians from many other groups joined in. The conflict, brutal and sad, tore through New England.” 

Chapter 3: Thought Questions

  • Compare and Contrast the Inka peoples with the native peoples of Southern New England
  • Compare and Contrast the Spanish Conquistadors in Peru with the English “Conquistadors” in Southern New England
  • Compare and Contrast the Inka peoples with the English settlers in Southern New England
  • Compare and Contrast the impact Inka peoples and colonial English people had on American natives that came under their control
  • Compare and Contrast the role terrain and geography played with the natives of Southern New England and the Inka peoples
  • Compare and Contrast the role economic exchange played with the natives of Southern New England and the Inka peoples 
  • Compare and Contrast the role shifting alliance building played with the native of Southern New England and the Inka peoples 
  • Compare and Contrast the methods and purposes of warfare for the native of Southern New England and the Inka peoples 
  • Compare and Contrast the reaction to Europeans by the native of Southern New England and the Inka peoples 
  • Compare and Contrast the reaction of Inka peoples to Europeans with the reaction of Andean civilizations to the Inka peoples

Chapter 3: Response / Thought Quotes

  • “Dobyns was struck by the disparity between the large number of burials recorded at the parish and the far smaller number of baptisms.”
  • “In 1491 the Inka ruled the greatest empire on earth. Bigger than Ming Dynasty China, bigger than Ivan the Great’s expanding Russia, bigger than Songhay in the Sahel or powerful Great Zimbabwe in the West Africa tablelands, bigger than the cresting Ottoman Empire, bigger than the Triple Alliance (as the Aztec empire is more precisely known), bigger by far than any European state, the Inka dominion extended over a staggering thirty-two degrees of latitude—as if a single power held sway from St. Petersburg to Cairo.”

Articles

 

Week 1 :: 1491 by Charles C. Mann – Chapter 1: A View From Above

Thought Questions

  • What does the author want the reader to understand when thinking about the story of Beni?
  • In what ways are anthropology and archeology changing Pre-Columbian history? 
  • What were the Neolithic Revolutions? 
  • In what ways is “Holmberg’s Mistake” instructive for today? 

Response / Thought Quotes

  • “In the 1970s, they said, most authorities would have answered my question about the Sirionó in one way. Today most would answer it in another, different way. The difference involves what I came to think of, rather unfairly, as Holmberg’s Mistake.”
  • “Nonetheless, he was wrong about the Sirionó. And he was wrong about the Beni, the place they inhabited—wrong in a way that is instructive, even exemplary.”
  • “But flaws in perspective often appear obvious only after they are pointed out. In this case they took decades to rectify.”

 

Week 17 :: The American Colonies by Alan Taylor Chapter 15: Awakenings 1700–75

 

Response / Thought Quotes

“Our people do not so much need to have their heads stored, as to have their hearts touched.” 

“a most awakening sermon, and before sermon was done there was a great moaning and crying through the whole house—What shall I do to be saved—oh, I am going to Hell—oh, what shall I do for Christ, etc., etc., so that the minister was obliged to desist—the shrieks and cries were piercing and amazing.” 

“The power of God came down. My knees smote together. … It seem[e]d to me I was a sinking down to hell. I tho[ugh]t the floor I stood on gave way and I was just a going, but then I began to resign and, as I resigned, my distress began to go off till I was perfectly easy, quiet, and calm. … It seem[e]d as if I had a new soul & body both.”

“I had in my Pocket a Handful of Copper Money, three or four silver Dollars, and five Pistoles in Gold. As he proceeded, I began to soften, and concluded to give the Coppers. Another Stroke of his Oratory made me ashamed of that, and determined me to give the Silver; and he finished so admirably, that I emptied my Pocket wholly into the Collector’s Dish, Gold and all. “

“When I saw Mr. Whitefield come upon the Scaffold he Lookt almost angelical; a young, Slim, slender, youth before some thousands of people with a bold, undaunted Countenance, and my hearing how God was with him every where as he came along, it Solemnized my mind; and put me into a trembling fear before he began to preach; for he looked as if he was Clothed with authority from the Great God; and a sweet sollome solemnity sat upon his brow. And my hearing him preach, gave me a heart wound; by God’s blessing: my old Foundation was broken up.”

“In the ordinary Excitations of Grace before this Time, there were more Females added than Males, … but in this extraordinary Season, the Grace of GOD has surprisingly seized and subdued the hardiest Men, and more Males have been added here than of the tenderer sex.” 

Thought Questions

  • Explain and Expand: “Myth insists that the seventeenth-century English colonists fled from religious persecution into a land of religious freedom. In addition to omitting economic considerations, the myth grossly simplifies the diverse religious motives for emigration.”
  • Describe the Establishment church in New England and how it shaped New England society. How and Why was Rhode Island different?
  • Describe the lack of an Establishment church in Middle Colonies and how this shaped society in the Middle Colonies
  • Describe the Anglican church in the Chesapeake and how it shaped Chesapeake society. How did the Catholic church exist in Maryland alongside the Anglicans?
  • Describe the Establishment church in Southern Colonies and how it shaped society and slavery in the Southern Colonies
  • In what ways were “revivals” a part of traditional Congregationalist and Presbyterian churches? What was the nature and purpose of traditional revivals? 
  • Who was Jonathan Edwards?
  • Describe the sermon “Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God” as a revival sermon. How was it used orally and in written form and what difference did this have on its impact? 
  • What were the varieties of revival experiences and how did this vary by sect and region?
  • Explain and Expand: “The cultivation of despair, however, was a dangerous business that imperiled the lives of the melancholy.” 
  • What was the significance of the work “A Faithful Narrative of the Surprizing Work of God”?
  • Who was George Whitefield?
  • What role did theatrics play in Great Awakening revivals? How did organizers attempt to use the atmosphere to enhance the experience?
  • How did revivalism begin the “Social Gospel” tradition in New England?
  • In what ways did gender and age make the Great Awakening different from traditional revivals?
  • What was the significance of the sermon “The Danger of an Unconverted Ministry” 
  • Describe the evolution of the relationship between the Establishment Church and Revivalism?
  • Compare and Contrast the “Old Lights” and the “New Lights”? 
  • How did the battle between Old Lights and New Lights play out in educational institutions?
  • What part of the conflict between New Lights and Old Lights was over substance / doctrine and what part was over church culture, control and tradition?
  • Describe the divisions within Great Awakening Evangelicalism? 
  • How was the experience of the Great Awakening radical Evangelicalism different in the Southern colonies?
  • Describe the development of the Baptists within the Evangelical Movement? 
  • Compare and Contrast traditional / conservative Baptists with radical evangelical Baptists
  • In what ways did Great Awakening Evangelicalism address the issue of slavery?
  • In what ways did Great Awakening Evangelicalism impact Native Americans?
  • React and Respond: “Revivals were too emotionally demanding to last.” 
  • What were the regional legacies of Great Awakening Evangelicalism? 

Primary Sources

Articles and Resources

Further Reading

 

Week 11: The First Frontier Chapter 11: Endings

Thought Questions:

  • What was the author’s purpose in writing?
  • How did the author succeed or fail in their purpose?
  • What left an impression on you?
  • How do the experiences of the “First Frontier” provide guidance for our attitudes and actions as citizens today? 
  • How can the lessons of the “First Frontier” apply to making the United States (or your home nation) a stronger better nation today?

Optional Supplemental Reading

Week 10: The First Frontier Chapter 10: War Chief, Peace Chief

Thought Question

  • What themes from previous chapters are tied together in this chapter? 

Optional Supplemental Reading

 

Week 9: The First Frontier Chapter 9: The Long Peace Ends

Thought Questions: 

  • How was the “long peace” different in New England and Pennsylvania? 
  • How did gender and intermarriage effect relations between different Europeans and Native Americans?
  • Why was religion of less importance in 1750 than in 1620? 
  • How does this episode in history relate the Colonial Era (pre 1763) to the Revolutionary Era to follow? 

Resources: Map One | Map Two

Primary Sources:

Optional Supplemental Reading

 

Week 8: The First Frontier Chapter 8: One Head, One Mouth and One Heart

Thought Questions:

  • What differences made the experience of Native Americans and Europeans in Pennsylvania distinct?

Articles:

Primary Source: 

Optional Supplemental Reading

 

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