Week 17: Before the Revolution Chapter 16: Gloomy and Dark Days and Epilogue: Present Pasts

Thought Questions

  • Describe the French and Indian War (1754), its significance and how it was related to events in Europe.
  • How is the title of the “French and Indian” war misleading?
  • How did Britain attempt to control relations between the colonists and Native American? 
  • What were the major issues between Colonial Americans and Native Americans in 1754?
  • What was the Albany Congress and the “Plan of Union” and what did it achive and fail to achive? 
  • How were George Washington and Benjamin Franklin involved in the French and Indian War?
  • What was the context for the motto and flag “Join or Die”? 
  • Who was Edward Braddock, what was his role in America and how was he connected to George Washington?
  • What impressions and knowledge did George Washington gain from the French and Indian War? How were his beliefs effected by the French and Indian War?
  • Who were the Delaware Indians and where is the Wyoming Valley? 
  • What was the Six Nations and what role did they play in the French and Indian War? 
  • In what ways did religion have an impact on the French and Indian War? 
  • Who was James Fenimore Cooper? 
  • Who was Jeffery Amherst, James Wolfe and John Forbes and what role did they play in the French and Indian War? 
  • How did the French and Indian War prepare the way for the American Revolution? 
  • Who were the “Paxton Boys” and how did they reflect the mood of Colonials? 
  • Who was John Wilkes and how does his story demonstrate the transition from British Colonials into American?
  • What were the terms of The Paris Treaty of 1763 and how was it received by the Colonials?
  • What was the Proclomation of 1763 and how was it received by the Colonials?
  • What were the major points and arguements of James Otis’ pamphlet “The Rights of the British Colonist, Asserted and Proved”
  • How does the author summarize his thesis in the Epilogue? 

Primary Sources

Articles and Resources

Optional Supplemental Reading

Week 16: Before the Revolution Chapter 15: Contending for a Continent

Thought Questions

  • Who were the Delaware Native Americans and how is their story typical of Native American polities? 
  • Who was Increase Mather and what did he mean when he said “Land! Land! hath been the idol of many. … Idolatry brings the sword”?
  • Describe the generalpattern of movement among Native Americans prompted by the arrival of colonials? 
  • How the did the British desire to control tax revenue from land sales effect relations between Natives and Colonials? 
  • What was the War of Jenkin’s Ear? 
  • Describe the events surrounding the settlement of the Ohio River Valley by colonials? 

Primary Sources

Articles and Resources

Optional Supplemental Reading

 

Week 14: Before the Revolution Chapter 13: Producing and Consuming in an Atlantic Empire

Thought Questions

  • What does the author mean by the term “Atlantian”? What are its origins?
  • What were the purposes of the British Navigation Acts and how did the Act of 1696 alter the nature and enforcement of these acts and how did it effect colonial economic development
  • What was the English Privy Council and Board of Trade? 
  • What was the position of Secretary of State for the Southern Department? 
  • Describe the process of the development of colonial shipping and ship building and the reasons for its development
  • What advantages did American ship builders have over British ship builders? How could this be viewed as a threat to British power? 
  • What forms did the mediums of exchange take in the colonies and how did they develop and how were they maintained?
  • How did transportation and communication circumstances effect relations between Britain and the American colonies? 
  • Describe the circumstances and effects of the Yamasee War 
  • How were the Spanish managing relations with the Pueblo Indians during this time and how were the effects substantial and how were they inconsequential? 
  • How did newspapers and print materials effect the cultural development of the colonies? 

Articles

Optional Supplemental Reading

Week 15: Before the Revolution Chapter 14: People In Motion: Enslaved and Free

Thought Questions

  • How did slavery grow and expand in the Chesapeake Upper South region differently from the New England and the Lower South? 
  • What factors accounted for the growth or lack of growth of slavery in different regions of British North America?
  • In 1700 what was the average price of a male African slave in New York? in Philadelphia? in the Chesapeake region? in the Carolinas? In the west Indies? 
  • How does the cost of different types of slaves in early 18th century British North America help explain the nature of slavery in America and the lives and life expectancy of slaves?
  • How did slavery effect different economic regions where it existed? 
  • How did slavery distort the economics and retard the potential of free labor where they coexisted?
  • How did the proportion of free labor compared to slave labor effect the institutions of slavery and free labor?
  • Describe the “First Passage” of slaves from their capture in Africa to slaving ports on the African coast? 
  • Describe the “Middle Passage” of slaves between Africa and the Americas
  • In what ways did slaves passively resist enslavement by actively creating a special culture? 
  • What do the terms mean and what were the differences between “voluntary slaves” and “involuntary slaves”? 
  • Describe the unique circumstances surrounding the development of Pennsylvania, West Jersey and Delaware? 
  • Who was James Oglethorpe and how was the founding of Georgia unique from the other British colonies? 
  • In the 1710s and 1720s who were the “New Lights” and “Old Lights” and how did their controversy effect the development of the American colonies? 
  • How did religion play and significant role in the social lives of colonists and the development (or lack of development) of diversity in the American colonies? 

Notes and Information

  • Note: The slaves sea voyage is often referred to as the “Middle Passage” and the trip from the slave ports in the Americas to their first place of slave labor is often called the “Final Passage“. When a slave is transferred from one region to another within the Americas, it is often referred to as an “internal passage“. When an individual escaped slavery and was on the way to a freedom, the routes are sometimes referred to as a “freedom passage“. Individuals resisting enslavement that were “sold down the river” as punishment often were transferred in especially brutal ways in an attempt to break their will or cause maiming or death and these are sometimes referred to as “Penal orPunishment Passages“. This is not universal, but this is the way these terms are used on our site because they are widely understood. 
  • The concept of a “passage” is a very Euro-American way of understanding African slavery which means it assumes the viewpoint of those controlling the slaves and not the slaves themselves. A more valuable way of understanding slavery is one that focuses on the condition of the slave rather than the slaver. Instead of focusing on the “geographic” position of the slave, understanding slavery from the viewpoint of the slave and the stateand experience of “brutalization” the slave was experiencing during a particular period of time reveals a much more useful historical understanding. In the same way trying to understand “slavers” or “masters” by their position in the slavery chain can limit understand. Understanding the role of “slaver” or “master” by the way they participate in and benefit from slave “brutalization” and then understanding how their geographic position in the slave chain fits into that understanding is much more historically useful. This understanding of slavery is sometimes referred to as the “Process of Brutalization” and how it effects both the victim and the perpetrator. 
  • See “Masters of Death” Chapter 2 Vicious Circles by Richard Rhodes for more about the process of brutalization and the normalization of violence and authority. 

Optional Supplemental Reading

Week 13: Before the Revolution Chapter 12: Revolution, War and a New Transatlantic Order

Thought Questions 

  • How did the English Bill of Rights come into being?
  • What elements of the English Bill of Rights are reflected in the American Bill of Rights? 
  • What circumstances contributed to the development of Native American confederations?
  • How did the different American colonies react to the Glorious Revolution? 
  • Describe the state of relations surrounding the British, French and Native Americans around the time of the Glorious Revolution. 
  • How did the circumstances of the Glorious Revolution effect Maryland differently from other American colonies?
  • How did those circumstances above impact proprietary colonies differently from non-proprietary colonies? 
  • How were “Protestant Associations” forerunners of the “Sons of Liberty”? (keep reading this is an important and largely unacknowledged influence on the American Revolution)
  • How did the Bank of England’s financing of non-productive activities (activities that produce no or negative income or resources, such as the European Wars of Succession)effect the debt and tax situation in Great Britain, limit productive economic development and alter colonial economic development? (keep reading this is another important and largely unacknowledged influence on the American Revolution)
  • How did Scottish Imperialism lead to the Act of Union? 
  • Describe the events around the Salem Witch Trials and how they were different from previous trials? 
  • Describe the changing state of relations between Catholics and Protestants in British America? 
  • How did the new emergence of Royal Authority in British America alter the nature of government in the colonies? 
  • What was the “Glorious Enterprise” and the events around it?
  • How did the events of the late 17th century interconnect Europe and the Americas at a different level?
  • What is the relationship between Barbados and Carolina?
  • How were the Carolina Goose Creek Men?

Primary Sources

Articles and Resources

Optional Supplemental Reading

Week 12: Before The Revolution Chapter 11 Planters Besieged

Thought Questions

  • Describe the events and persons that led to Bacon’s Rebellion
  • Who was Nathaniel Bacon and how was he a part of the Virginia Civil War? 
  • What were the end consequences of Bacon’s Rebellion?
  • Describe the events and persons that led to King Phillip’s War?
  • What were the end consequences of King Phillips War? 
  • How were the events of King Phillip’s War and Bacon’s Rebellion similar and different?
  • What was the Dominion of New England and what were the events before and after it that contributed to the long term development of the individual New England colonies? 
  • What was the Glorious Revolution in England and how did it effect the American colonies?
  • How was religion and European relations involved in the Glorious Revolution? 

Articles and Resources

Primary Sources

Optional Supplemental Reading

Week 10: Before the Revolution Chapter 9 Dutch, French, Spanish and English Counterpoints

Thought Questions

  • What were the different purposes and goals European colonizers had in their colonies?
  • How were the different goals and methods of the Dutch, Spanish, French and English colonies similar and how were they mutually self defeating? 
  • How did Dutch, French and Spanish colonials effect the development of the British colonies?
  • What were some of the distinctive characteristics of the different Dutch, French and Spanish colonials and colonial leaders?
  • In what ways did colonial ambitions in the Caribbean effect their goals and actions on the mainland? 
  • How did different European economies implement and support the development of racial slavery and other forms of unfree labor? 
  • Who were the French Huguenots and how were they involved in European colonialism? 
  • Who were and How did the native Pueblo peoples live and interact with European settlers in Nuevo Mexican region? 
  • How did Cromwell and events in England effect the European colonies? 

Optional Supplemental Reading

Week 9: Before the Revolution Chapter 8 Planting Patriarchy in New England and Virginia

Thought Questions

  • How was the charter and creation of the Massachusetts Bay Colony different from other English colonies? 
  • How did the English Civil War effect New England? 
  • Who was Roger Williams and how did he reflect controversies over religion and Native Americans?
  • How did land and labor effect Colonial America in New England and the Chesapeake?
  • What was “Free Grace” and “Preparationism” and how were they related to the antinomian controversies in New England? 
  • How did Roger Williams evolve as a colonial and faith leader? 
  • What were the broader effects of John Winthrope, Roger Williams and Anne Hutchinson on New England and the United States? 
  • How did the different New England colonies interact with each other? 
  • With consideration of the previous chapters how did New England develop differently from and similar to the Chesapeake?
  • How was the motivation of the Colonizers different and similar in New England and the Chesapeake?
  • In what ways were the life goals of colonial settlers different and similar in New England and the Chesapeake? 
  • How were gender and race factors in the different development of New England and the Chesapeake?
  • How were religion and economics factors in the different development of New England and the Chesapeake? 

Primary Sources

Optional Supplemental Reading

Week 8: Before the Revolution Chapter 7 Searching for Order in New and Old England

Thought Questions

  • What do the writings of John Underhill and John Smith tell us about life in England in the early 1600s?
  • What social conditions in England motivated English middle gentry and the working poor to undertake immigration to America? 
  • What were the religious circumstances created by the Stuarts? 
  • Describe the major events of the Tudor and Stuart periods of English history.
  • Who were the Pilgrims, what did they believe and what events brought them to America? 
  • Who were the Puritans, what did they believe and what events brought them to America? 
  • What were the similarities and differences between the Puritans and Pilgrims? 

Primary Sources

Articles (Keep your Williams and Johns straight)

Optional Supplemental Reading

Week 7: Before the Revolution Chapter 6: Epidemics, War and the Remapping of a Continent

Thought Questions

  • What was the “Great Dying” and how did it unfold in the 1500s?
  • How did the new presence of European children effect the second wave of epidemics in North American in the 1600s?
  • How did Europeans and Native Americans view religion in the context of the “Great Dying” 
  • How did the epidemics effect wars among Native Americans?
  • Why did European trade goods and connections become more important in the wake of the epidemics in Native communities? 
  • What role did captives play in Native American wars? 

Optional Supplemental Reading

Week 6: Before the Revolution – Chapter 5: Native Americans and the Power of Trade

Thought Questions

  • How did Native Americans and Europeans view trade differently? 
  • How were the goals of European and Native American leaders similar? 

Optional Supplemental Reading

Week 4: Before The Revolution Chapter 3: Crusades of the Christ Bearers to the Americas

Thought Questions

  • What were the “official” and “unofficials” goals (or themes) of Spanish colonialism?
  • How did the conflict between “official” and “unofficial” goals demonstrate itself?
  • What were the motives, intentions, methods of Spanish colonialism and how did they align with their goals?
  • What was the general attitude towards Native Ameicans and how were they used by Spanish Colonizers?

Optional Supplemental Reading

  • Colonial New Hampshire by Jere Daniell Chapter 6 and 7
  • The Mayflower by Nathaniel Philbrick Chapter 6 and 7

Week 2: Before the Revolution – Chapter 1: Legacies of Power from Medeval North America

Thought Question:

  • Before the Revolution looks at Colonial America as a new society created from progressive layers. How does the old society of North America also represent a “Layered past? 

Optional Supplemental Reading

  1. Colonial New Hampshire by Jere Daniell – Chapter 2 and 3
  2. The Mayflower by Nathaniel Philbrick – Chapter 2 and 3

Week 1: Before the Revolution – Prologue Layered Pasts and review the Introduction in The First Frontier

Thought Questions

  • How does Daniel Richter organize his history? What metaphor does he use? 
  • How does the conflict theme used in the First Frontier differ from the composite theme in Before The Revolution? 
  • What similar themes are shared between the two books?
  • What do you expect to be different between the two books? 

Optional Supplemental Reading