Colonial American History - The Atlantic and Pacific Worlds - New Spain and New France - British America

Chapter 4: Recruitment, Expansion, and Transformation :: The Barbarous Years: The Peopling of British North America: The Conflict of Civilizations, 1600-1675 by Bernard Bailyn

Response / Thought Quotes

  • “the governor’s place here may be as profittable as the lord deputies in Irland.”
  • “walk the streets…[and] apprehend all such vagrant children, both boys and girls, as they shall find on the streets and in the markets or wandering in the night”
  • “deny or refuse such order … they [will] receive no further relief from the parish wherein they inhabit.”
  • “young, handsome and honestlie educated maides … to be disposed in marriage to the most honest and industrious planters”
  • “had not your zealous desires over hasted you and the passage at sea bin soe unfortunate … whereby I had no warning at all given to provide for these people, I should have bine able to have done much better than now I can.”

Thought Questions

  • In what ways did propaganda provide settlers for the colony
  • Who were Sir Edwin Sandys and George Yeardley
  • Explain and Expand: A Declaration of the State of the Colonie
  • In what ways did population recruitment evolve under Sir Edwin Sandys
  • Compare and Contrast: The typical English recruit and the average continental European recruit
  • What role did forced child migrants play in the Jamestown settlement
  • How did the colony economically diversify under Sir Edwin Sandys
  • In what ways did gender impact the development of the colony and what steps did the company take to address the gender imbalance
  • Explain and Expand: “seeking, in the crude, stump-filled tobacco farms of this subtropical lowland, to re-create a world they had known.”
  • Describe the typical physical condition of new migrants to Virginia
  • What impact did Puritanism have on Jamestown and Virginia
  • Explain and Expand: “Among the arrivals in August of that year was the Dutch man-of-war that sold to the colony “20 and odd Negroes” (Angolan natives, they were not the first Africans to appear in the colony’s records: thirty-two—fifteen men and seventeen women—were listed in a muster of March 1619 as “in ye service of severall planters”).”
  • What role did communal farms play in the Virginia settlement

Articles and Resources

Colonial American History - The Atlantic and Pacific Worlds - New Spain and New France - British America

Chapter 3 (Part 2) :: The Barbarous Years: The Peopling of British North America: The Conflict of Civilizations, 1600-1675 by Bernard Bailyn

Response / Thought Quotes

  • “His soldiers, mimicking an Indian gesture of hospitality, lured the Kecoughtan villagers into the open with the piping, dancing, and drumming of a young taborer, then killed fourteen of the men, women, and children who had come out to watch, and looted their lodges and fertile maize fields. A month later De La Warr sent Percy and seventy men to avenge the Paspaheghs’ failure to return arms and captives. Nothing and no one was spared. Percy’s troops killed fifteen or sixteen natives on the spot, burned down the village houses, and destroyed the crops. Returning downriver with the tribe’s “queen,” her children, and a male Indian captive in tow, Percy, criticized by his troops for burdening them with these encumbrances, “cawsed the Indians heade to be Cutt of[f],” and then was persuaded by his troops to allow them to kill the children, which they did by throwing them overboard and “shotingge owt their Braynes in the water.” The queen, for the time, was spared. After a foray inland to burn another village’s houses and crops and to destroy their “Spacyous Temple, cleane and neatly kept” though it was, Percy arrived back in Jamestown, to be told that the governor was “discontente” because the queen had not been disposed of. De La Warr thought it best, Percy was told, “to Burne her.” But “haveinge seene so mutche Blood shedd thatt day,” Percy “desired to see noe more,” and in any case, burning, he felt, was not “fittinge.” He therefore decided that if the queen was to be murdered it should be “by shott or Sworde to give her a quicker dispatche.” So Capt. James Davis, a remorseless “taskmaster” at the forts, took the woman into the woods and “putt her to the sworde.””
  • “When De La Warr suspected that some natives visiting the Jamestown fort were spies, he “caused one to have his hands cutt of[ f], and so sentte [him] unto his fellowes to geve them warneinge for attemptinge the lyke.””
  • “No longer thinking, as Smith had done, simply of the desperate need for life- saving supplies, Dale, a participant in the ruthless slaughter of noncombatants in Ireland on the ground that “terrour… made short Warrs,” launched a program of deliberate military provocation and savage harassment. His campaign to reduce the natives to the status of subject people and drive them off the most valuable lands was part of what has been called England’s “First Anglo- Powhatan War (August 1609 to April 1614).””
  • “translated England’s ad terrorem tactics from the Irish wars of the late sixteenth century—specifically the use of deception, ambush, and surprise, the random slaughter of both sexes and all ages, the calculated murder of innocent captives, and the destruction of entire villages … [The attacks] neither discriminated between combatant and noncombatant victims nor between hostile and friendly tribes.”
  • “Having succeeded, however, in gaining these major goals and in creating terror among the Indians, Dale drew back in 1612–13 to secure his victories and develop a strategy for the next moves. The English received an unexpected advantage when, in March 1613, they captured Pocahontas and found her susceptible both to conversion to Christianity and to John Rolfe’s romantic, and missionary, interest.”
  • “The first, failing experiments that had been made in growing tobacco were not of the native, local plant known to the Indians but of a Spanish variety imported from Trinidad, for which a market was known to exist in Europe. Two years later John Rolfe’s efforts to produce the plant that grew natively in the Chesapeake region were beginning to look promising, though the quality of the tobacco shipped was still judged too poor for English consumption. It was, however, easily produced on partly cleared land, and the farmers, desperate for some kind of cash crop, persisted. The quality of the crop gradually improved, especially as a result of experiments carried on by experts sent to Bermuda, and production rose in every planting season. In 1616, a mere 1,250 pounds were shipped to England; in 1617, almost 10,000 pounds; in 1618, almost 25,000; in 1620, almost 60,000. In all, by 1621 over 100,000 pounds of Virginia tobacco were sent to England; by 1625, almost 400,000.”

Thought Questions

  • Who were the Kecoughtans?
  • Who was George Percy, what role did he fill in Jamestown and how did he impact relations with the Native Americans?
  • Who were the Appomattocs
  • Describe the general state of relations between Native Americans and Jamestown during the period of De La Warr
  • Describe the general state of relations between Native Americans and Jamestown during the period of Thomas Gates
  • Compare and Contrast: Thomas Gates and De La Warr
  • How and why were the Virginia settlements collected together and (re)organized by Thomas Dale and Thomas Gates?
  • What was Dale’s Law and how did it impact Jamestown?
  • Describe the relationship between Thomas Gates and Thomas Date
  • Describe the circumstances leading to and the evolution of the First Anglo- Powhatan War?
  • Who was Bartolomé de Las Casas, what was the “Black Legend” and how did it impact English colonial expectations?
  • Explain and Expand: “The need for some such rationale grew with the escalation of conflict.”
  • Explain and Expand: “Some kind of reciprocity had been achieved. But the Indians saw it as the end of a process; the English saw it as a beginning.”
  • Explain and Expand: “While Gates and Dale were clamping a rigorous work routine on the colony’s settlers and while their “hammerours” were bringing devastation and terror to the Powhatans, the company’s fortunes at home had badly declined.”
  • How did circumstances and events change in London and Virginia that altered the situations for the colonists in Virginia
  • Who was John Rolfe
  • Describe the evolution of tobacco agriculture in early Virginia during the Jamestown period
  • Explain and Expand: “At that point the company entered its final phase, which for a few short years seemed to be leading to the brilliant success so long delayed. But it was a false dawn that led to another dark passage of bloodshed and terror—which might have been predicted.”

Articles and Resources

 

Colonial American History - The Atlantic and Pacific Worlds - New Spain and New France - British America

Chapter 3 (Part 1): The “Hammerours’ ” Regime :: The Barbarous Years: The Peopling of British North America: The Conflict of Civilizations, 1600-1675 by Bernard Bailyn

Response / Thought Quotes

  • “It was no doubt a remarkable coincidence that Gates, moving downstream with his rescue party and the survivors of Jamestown, met the advance boats of the rest of the delayed fleet of 1609, including the new governor, the third Baron De La Warr.”
  • “By 1609 Newport’s and others’ accounts of the internal squabbles in Jamestown and race conflicts in Virginia, together with the failure of the settlers to produce valuable goods or a new route to the Pacific, led Smith and his coinvestors to recast the entire venture. Their original idea of a fort, trading station, and base camp for exploration would never succeed. A permanent, self-supporting, and productive colony was needed, and they drew up plans to achieve it. The land would be owned by the company and worked by servants sent out and maintained at the company’s expense. The company would have a complete monopoly of all marketing of goods shipped home and would establish a severely coercive regime in the colony to overcome any future factionalism and enforce an effective work regime.”
  • “Besides ordinary laborers and four “honest and learned ministers,” artisans in thirty- three specified occupations were listed as necessary for the colony’s success. The most urgently needed were sawyers, fishermen, and “iron men for the furnace and hammer”: ten of each were required. Then came blacksmiths, carpenters, shipwrights, gardeners, fowlers, coopers, and vine- dressers— six of each; then turners, brickmakers, rope makers, pitch boilers, and “sturgeon dressers and preservers of the caveary [caviar]”— four each; and all the rest, including surgeons, druggists, “minerall men,” “planters of sugar- cane,” and “pearle drillers”— two each.”
  • “Hakluyt’s description of them as “hammerours” who would know how to “prepare” the Indians for “our preachers’ hands.””

Thought Questions

  • Summarize the experience of the Jamestown settlement under the original council
  • Summarize the experience of the Jamestown settlement under the management of John Smith
  • Describe the period between John Smith leaving Jamestown and the aborted abandonment of Jamestown
  • What is the meaning of The “Hammerours’ ” Regime
  • Who were Baron De La Warr, Thomas Smith, Thomas Dale and Thomas Gates
  • Describe the first relief expedition to Jamestown
  • Describe the second and third relief expeditions to Jamestown
  • In what ways did the supply and quality of labor impact the settlement of Jamestown
  • In what ways did the first financial restructuring of the company impact the settlement of Jamestown in 1611
  • Explain and Expand: “In the first six months after De La Warr’s arrival, one-third of the settlers had sickened and died or were killed by the Indians.”

Primary Sources

Articles and Resources

Colonial American History - The Atlantic and Pacific Worlds - New Spain and New France - British America

Chapter 2: Death on a Coastal Fringe (Section 3-5) :: The Barbarous Years: The Peopling of British North America: The Conflict of Civilizations, 1600-1675 by Bernard Bailyn

Response / Thought Quotes

  • “They called this quasi- island Jamestown, and on May 14, 1607, they unloaded their men and equipment, threw together tents and huts behind a brushwood barrier, and set about building “a triangular palisade of posts, rails, and poles, with bulwarks at the corners where cannon were mounted.” The three years that followed was a period of violent dissension within the tiny palisaded settlement, confusion of purpose, physical devastation, and the emergence of a permanent pattern of race conflict. Death was everywhere.”
  • “By August, three months after the expedition’s arrival, the settlers in their small encampment were facing annihilation. The indispensable and inspirational organizer Bartholomew Gosnold died on August 22, one of dozens whose names George Percy recorded despondently day after day—victims, he explained, “of the bloudie flixe … of the swelling … of a wound”—in sum, of many “cruell diseases … and by Warrs … but for the most part they died of meere famine.” The groans “in every corner of the fort [were] most pittifull to heare,” he wrote; it made one’s heart “bleed to heare the pittiful murmurings and out-cries of our sick men.” Some fled to the Indians to avoid starvation, but soon straggled back from that strange world. For six weeks, until some relief came in from the Indians, three or four died each night, and “in the morning their bodies [were] trailed out of their cabines like dogges to be buried.” By September, 46 of the 104 settlers had died, and among the survivors there were not 6 able-bodied men. By January 2, 1608, when Newport arrived back from England in one of the two vessels of the “first supply,” only 38 were still alive—and only barely alive.”
  • “he knew there was a scattering of several hundred Algonquian villages, organized into some thirty chiefdoms, each village with less than one hundred souls, totaling perhaps fifteen thousand people. They were led, with imperfect authority, by the “chief of chiefs,” Powhatan and his warrior brother Opechancanough”
  • “Two episodes, minuscule events in a confused world, seemingly mere curiosities in the bloody struggles for survival, reveal the mutuality, the parallelism, of hopes and expectations, reasonable in themselves but that would prove to be contradictory, ultimately the source of bitter conflict.”
  • “These were calm passages in a tumultuous sea of uncertainty and conflict. And there were others. Young boys were exchanged on both sides, to learn the languages, the “designs,” and the ways of life of the other people.”
  • “Smith, in his Elizabethan love of drama and pageantry, may have relished the feasts and ceremonies, but most of his contacts with the natives were ruthless raids on their villages to extract corn and other supplies for the starving settlers. When his demands were not met, he threatened murder, took hostages at gunpoint, “negotiated” by intimidation, and without hesitation seized from the natives precious supplies that were necessary for their tribes’ survival. Believing the Indians to be inherently barbarous, he attributed to them deceits and plots they did not have and provoked them in ways they did not understand.”
  • “Then the ultimate catastrophes began. A few of the “gastely and pale” inhabitants of the fort— we do not know how many— did “those things w[ hi] ch seame incredible, as to digge upp deade corp[ s] es outt of graves and to eate them… and some have Licked upp the Bloode w[ hi] ch hathe fallen from their weake fellowes.” And even beyond that, Percy wrote, one man murdered his wife, “Ripped the Childe outt of her woambe… Chopped the Mother in pieces and sallted her for his foode.” Forced to confess “by torture haveinge hunge by the Thumbes w[ i] th weightes att his feete a quarter of an howere,” the murderer was executed. Many of those who “To eate… did Runn away unto the Salvages” fared no better: “we never heard of [them] after.””

Thought Questions

  • What was the organization of the company that sent the Jamestown Colonists?
  • What were the instructions, principle objectives and advice issued to the Jamestown Colonists?
  • How did religious circumstances generally and Catholic missionaries particularly impact the initial Jamestown settlement plan and Colonists?
  • Describe the initial contact and reactions between the Chickahominy Indians and the Jamestown settlers and Colonists.
  • Explain and Expand: “Partly the confusion was generated by conflicts of purpose.”
  • Describe the condition of the Jamestown settlement at by the time of the first relief shipment and how this condition came about
  • Describe the first relief shipment and how it impacted the Jamestown settlement
  • In what ways did John Smith contribute to European knowledge of the Chesapeake and New England. What were the strengths and weaknesses of this knowledge?
  • How did John Smith’s knowledge of the Chesapeake and New England impact future English settlement?
  • Who are the Chickahominies?
  • Who were the Monocans?
  • In what ways did the experience of the English in Ireland impact the Jamestown settlement
  • Describe the decline in relations between the Jamestown settlement and the Chickahominies
  • Explain and Expand: “By such means a marginal survival was preserved”
  • Explain and Expand: “The Indians were not even bothering to attack the protected blockhouse since they assumed the people within it would shortly perish.”
  • Describe the setting leading up to the First Anglo- Powhatan War

Articles and Resources

Colonial American History - The Atlantic and Pacific Worlds - New Spain and New France - British America

Chapter 2: Death on a Coastal Fringe (Parts 3-5) :: The Barbarous Years by Bernard Baylin

Response / Thought Quotes

  • “The three years that followed was a period of violent dissension within the tiny palisaded settlement, confusion of purpose, physical devastation, and the emergence of a permanent pattern of race conflict. Death was everywhere.”
  • “Smith, in his Elizabethan love of drama and pageantry, may have relished the feasts and ceremonies, but most of his contacts with the natives were ruthless raids on their villages to extract corn and other supplies for the starving settlers. When his demands were not met, he threatened murder, took hostages at gunpoint, “negotiated” by intimidation, and without hesitation seized from the natives precious supplies that were necessary for their tribes’ survival. Believing the Indians to be inherently barbarous, he attributed to them deceits and plots they did not have and provoked them in ways they did not understand.”
  • “Then the ultimate catastrophes began. A few of the “gastely and pale” inhabitants of the fort—we do not know how many—did “those things w[hi]ch seame incredible, as to digge upp deade corp[s]es outt of graves and to eate them … and some have Licked upp the Bloode w[hi]ch hathe fallen from their weake fellowes.” And even beyond that, Percy wrote, one man murdered his wife, “Ripped the Childe outt of her woambe … Chopped the Mother in pieces and sallted her for his foode.” Forced to confess “by torture haveinge hunge by the Thumbes w[i]th weightes att his feete a quarter of an howere,” the murderer was executed. Many of those who “To eate … did Runn away unto the Salvages” fared no better: “we never heard of [them] after”
  • “The Indians were not even bothering to attack the protected blockhouse since they assumed the people within it would shortly perish.”

Thought Questions

  • Summarize the founders of the Jamestown colony
  • How were the instructions from the corporation given to the Jamestown settlers?
  • What were the instructions given to the Jamestown settlers?
  • In what ways did the Jamestown founders react to and comply with the instructions they received?
  • Summarize what the Jamestown settlers found when they entered the James River
  • Describe the geography of the Jamestown location from human and military points of view
  • Describe the process of initial settlement at Jamestown
  • Specifically what were the instructions to the colonists about Native Americans and what does this reflect?
  • Specifically what was the attitude and intention of the colonists towards Native Americans
  • In what pragmatic ways did the Jamestown colony grow
  • What impact did Newport’s second mission have on Jamestown
  • In what ways did a détente develop between the Jamestown colonies and Native Americans? Why did this occur?
  • Describe Captain John Smith and the role he filled in Jamestown
  • Describe the interaction between Jamestown as a colony and the Powhatan confederacy during early settlement
  • Describe the interaction between John Smith and the Powhatans?
  • In what ways did John Smith set or illustrate a pattern of Euro-native conflict / cooperations
  • Why didn’t Powhatan destroy Jamestown once they became a security threat?
  • Compare and Contrast: the motives and intentions of the Jamestown “Settlers” and the Jamestown “Colonizers”
  • Describe the grey middle area between “Settler” and “Colonizer”
  • Describe the Jamestown settlers early attempts at horticulture and agriculture
  • Describe the Jamestown settlers early attempts at industry
  • Compare and Contrast: the quality of life in London and the quality of life in Jamestown
  • Compare and Contrast: the quality of life in Jamestown and the Powhatan villages
  • In what ways did the disparity in quality of life between Jamestown and Powhatan impact these societies and how did they react to this impact
  • Explain and Expand: “By such means a marginal survival was preserved”
  • Describe the events of Jamestown the winter John Smith was recalled to England
  • Who was Thomas Gates and what immediate impact did he have on Jamestown (to be continued…)
  • Compare and Contrast: Thomas Gates and John Smith (to be continued…)

Articles and Resources

Further Reading

 

Colonial American History - The Atlantic and Pacific Worlds - New Spain and New France - British America

Chapter 2: Death on a Coastal Fringe (Parts 1-2) :: The Barbarous Years – The Peopling of British North America: The Conflict of Civilizations, 1600-1675 by Bernard Bailyn

Response / Thought Quotes

  • “It was into this still-traditional though changing, animist, violently competitive, and delicately poised world, constantly beset by disbalancing shocks, that a small contingent of Englishmen arrived in 1607. They were people whose way of life, sensibilities, assumptions, skills, knowledge, social relations, and aspirations—their entire experience and view of the world and the universe—could scarcely have been more different from those of the people who watched their arrival from the shores of Chesapeake Bay.”
  • “Yet they were clearly barbarians”
  • “These mingled images of natives in the alien lands of the Atlantic world—advanced but satanic people whose wealth and labor could easily be exploited; simple, innocent, natural folk whose resources were as yet unknown and who could presumably be led, through Christianity, to higher stages of civilization; and brutish, debased people condemned by their animal-like wildness to live beyond an exclusionary pale—such visions had little in common except barbarousness, paganism, and the threat of dark mysteries as yet unrevealed. The inconsistency of these images would in itself prove to be a force in race relations in North America.”
  • “It is less surprising that the annals of their sojourn in America record endless turmoil and conflict—that they were hopelessly improvident and constantly engaged in quarrels among themselves and in deadly warfare with the natives—than that the settlement they led survived at all.”

Thought Questions

  • Explain and Expand: “Spirit existed, mind existed, not as a part of the shared physical world but apart from it; these were unique attributes of humanity.”
  • Explain and Expand: “Their relation to the land was the heart of their world.”
  • Compare and Contrast: The living conditions for working / working poor in Britain and the Native Americans they encountered in moving to America
  • How did Elizabeth’s long reign impact British colonialism?
  • Describe the “British ideology of empire”
  • Who was Richard Hakluyt and how did he impact British colonialism
  • Explain and Expand: “The dominant energizing force in the early seventeenth century, however, was the newly empowered commercial organizations”
  • Compare and Contrast: the goals and motivations of the English landed class and the English merchant class
  • Who was Humphrey Gilbert and how did he impact British colonialism
  • React and Respond: “The image that informed Englishmen had of the American Indian population on the eve of permanent settlement in America was an inconsistent blend of notions derived from scattered sources, all of which reinforced an assumption of immense European superiority in religion, culture, power, and capacity.”
  • How did British views of the pre-historic Picts impact their views of Native Americans? “how that the inhabitants of the great Brettanie have bin in times past as savvage as those of Virginia.”
  • In what ways did the English experience in Ireland impact their actions in America? “The “wild Irish” were said by would-be colonizers in the 1560s to be godless.”
  • Explain and Expand: “they both lived in worlds that were at least in part experienced as magical.”
  • React and Respond: “For the English, magic and witchcraft were not abnormal and extraordinary but commonplace and realistic, and that would be especially true in North America, for that distant land was known to be “one of the dark places of the earth,” one of the “wild partes” ultimately ruled by Satan and his minions; there the native priests were known to be “no other but such as our witches are.””
  • Explain and Expand: “was from this advanced, modernizing world, still in many ways close to its medieval origins, that the first English colonists in North America were drawn.”
  • Describe the two groups of English settlers that left for North America in 1606
  • Describe the characteristics of the group of English colonizers that landed at Jamestown
  • Who were the leaders of the Jamestown colony and what skills did they bring to the settlement?
  • Who was Christopher Newport and what impact did he have on colonization in America?
  • Who was Bartholomew Gosnold and what impact did he have on colonization of America
  • Who was George Kendall and what impact did he have on colonization in America?
  • Who was John Smith and what was his life experience before coming to Jamestown
  • What was the significance of the pamphlet “Good News from Virginia”
  • Explain and Expand: “In the first years of Virginia’s European history these representatives of England’s affluent intelligentsia would explore the Indians’ world, report on it, attempt to understand it and to conceive ways of exploiting it.”

Primary Sources

 

Colonial American History - The Atlantic and Pacific Worlds - New Spain and New France - British America

Introduction and Chapter 1: The Americans :: The Barbarous Years by Bernard Bailyn

Response / Thought Quotes

  • “They lived crowded lives … no less real for being invisible”
  • “The question for the leaders of the native American peoples on the eve of the English settlements—still confident, still hopeful for the future—was not how to destroy the invaders and wipe out the pathologies they brought with them, but how to use the strangers and their goods within the traditional culture, how to absorb the apparent benefits of European civilization, which they had so far found merely attractive but which would soon become useful, and ultimately indispensable.”

Thought Questions

  • What does the author hope to tell the reader about “The Barbarous Years” in the introduction
  • Explain and Expand: “They lived crowded lives” and “no less real for being invisible”
  • Compare and Contrast: The impact of European settlement on the Algonquians and the Iroquois
  • How was Native culture especially susceptible to disruption by European cultures?
  • Compare and Contrast: Societies formed around stability and balance and Societies formed around change and progress
  • Explain and Expand: The conflict between Societies formed around stability and balance and Societies formed around change and progress
  • What institutions and social structures underpinned Native American stability and balance
  • Compare and Contrast: Native American conceptions of spirit and religion with European (specifically English Protestant) conceptions of spirit and religion
  • Compare and Contrast: the role of masculinity in Native and European culture
  • Describe the role violence played in the lives of Native Americans
  • How did the role of violence impact the stability of Native American society
  • Describe some of the common living attributes of eastern seaboard Native Americans
  • Describe how “east coast networks” of transportation and communication impacted Native American communities
  • How did the insertion of land “ownership” disrupt the transportation and communication networks of Native Americans
  • What were the two major language groups of eastern woodland / seaboard Native Americans?
  • Describe the life circumstances and community structure of Powhattan society at the time of the arrival of the English
  • What was the Iroquois Confederacy
  • Describe the structure of Native American tribes in Southern New England
  • In what ways had the fur trade impacted Native Americans of “British American” before the arrival of the English?

Further Reading