World War I The Russian Revolution and Stalinism

Chapter 2: Lado’s Disciple – Part 1 :: Stalin: Paradoxes of Power by Stephen Kotkin

Up to “Agitator, Teacher”

Response / Thought Quotes

  • “He also developed into a voracious reader who started keeping a notebook of thoughts and ideas.”
  • “Because peasants in communes held no private property as individuals—either before or after emancipation—thinkers such as Herzen and Bakunin imagined the empire’s peasants to be inherently socialist and therefore, they argued, in Russia socialism could appear essentially before capitalism.”

Thought Questions

  • Briefly describe the history of Georgia and its relationship to Russia
  • How was 19th century Georgia in a period of transition? How was this different from the changes that took place in the 17th and 18th century?
  • Compare and Contrast: the human environment in Georgia villages such as Gori (I not Y) and the more urban Tblisi (Tbl – isi)
  • What role did the Russian Orthodox Church play in cultural life and education in Georgia
  • What role did the Russian Orthodox Church play in the early life of Jughashvili (spelling hint: Jug-hash-vili, a Jug of Hash with Vili)
  • Describe the educational experience of Jughashvili
  • Who was Vladimir “Lado” Ketskhoveli and what influence did he have on Jughashvili?
  • Describe the Georgia nationalist movement in the late 19th century
  • Regarding his skill as an insurgent. Explain and Expand: “But in 1895–96, he had to conceal his own Georgian-language poetry publishing triumph from the Russifying seminary authorities.”
  • Describe Jughashvili’s transition from populist nationalism to Marxism
  • Describe the Marxist theory behind the evolution of governing systems
  • How was Marxist theory blend with Russian history in the late 19th century?
  • What did Marx think of Russian evolution?
  • Explain and Expand on the relationship between Socialism and Communism
  • Compare and Contrast: Socialism and Communism
  • In what ways did Marx build theories on Adam Smith’s philosophy?
  • What was the International Workmen’s Association?
  • Who was Georgi Plekhanov?

Articles and Resources

Further Reading

 

World War I The Russian Revolution and Stalinism

Chapter 1: An Imperial Son :: Stalin: Paradoxes of Power, 1878-1928 by Stephen Kotkin

Response / Thought Quotes

  • “Over the more than four centuries from the time of ivan the terrible, russia expanded an average of fifty square miles per day.”
  • “Canadian agriculture was generally on a line with Kiev, far below the farms surrounding Moscow or St. Petersburg.”
  • “Too much has been made of Beso’s failings, and not enough of Yakov “Koba” Egnatashvili’s support. Too much has also been made of the violence in Soso Jughashvili’s early life. Beso beat his son out of anger, humiliation, or for no reason; the doting Keke beat the boy, too. (Beso struck Keke, and Keke sometimes thrashed Beso for being a drunkard.) 58 Of course, a sizable chunk of humanity was beaten by one or both parents.”
  • “To Iosif Jughashvili . . . for excellent progress, behavior and excellent recitation of the Psalter.” One schoolmate rhapsodized about Soso and other choirboys “wearing their surplices, kneeling, faces raised, singing Vespers with angelic voices while the other boys prostrated themselves filled with an ecstasy not of this world.”
  • “Stalin was very much a believer, going to all the services, singing in the church choir. . . . He not only observed all religious rites but always reminded us to observe them.”

Thought Questions

  • In what ways does the interior of the Russian Empire compare with the American western frontier?
  • In what ways does the availability of labor in 19th century Russia compare with the availability of labor in the United States?
  • Who were “Greater Russians”, “Little Russians”, “White Russians” and what is “Yellow Russia”?
  • Describe the situation Jews lived in during late Imperial Russia
  • Where is the Polish Pale of Settlement and what purpose does it serve?
  • What areas comprise the Russian Caucasus?
  • What are the principle cities of Georgia?
  • What areas comprise Russian Central Asia?
  • What areas comprise the Crimea?
  • Where is the Ossetia region?
  • Who were the “Old Believers” and how did they come into existence?
  • Explain and Expand: “Georgia’s Christian rulers were battling both the Muslim Ottomans and the Muslim Safavids and invited Christian Russia’s protection. That “protection,” in practice, was effected by opportunistic imperial agents close to the scene, and soon took the form of annexations, in 1801 and 1810.10 Russia terminated the Georgian Bagrationi dynasty and replaced the patriarch of the formerly independent Georgian Orthodox Church with a Russian Orthodox Church metropolitan (called an exarch). And yet, in another contradiction, the local “Russian” administration overflowed with Georgians, who were favored as fellow Christians.”
  • Describe the relationship between Russia and Georgia
  • Who was Besarion Jughashvili and Ketevan “Keke” Geladze?
  • Describe the Jughashvili family and their existence in Georgia
  • Explain and Expand:” These immense geopolitical facts that accompanied Stalin’s birth and early life—a unified industrial Germany, a consolidated industrial Japan, an American power greater than any other in world history—would shake the tsarist regime to its core and, one day, confront Stalin, too.”
  • How did industrialization in Russia impact the early life of Iosif Jughashvili?
  • Compare and Contrast: Clara Hitler and Ketevan “Keke” Geladze
  • Describe the relationship between the Orthodox Church and Iosif Jughashvili
  • Explain and Expand: “Much has been made over the young Stalin’s infatuation with a celebrated novel, The Patricide (1882), by Aleksandre Qazbegi (1848–93)”
  • How does Iosif Jughashvili assume the nickname “Koba” and who was Yakov Egnatashvili?
  • Describe the academic and religious education of Iosif Jughashvili
  • Compare and Contrast: The early lives of Peter the Great and Ivan the Terrible with Iosif Jughashvili
  • Who were Sergei “Kirov” Kostrikov and Grigol “Sergo” Orjonikidze