Response / Thought Quotes
- “It was as dark a day as ever I saw. The injury done to the cause of Christ, as we then supposed, was irreparable. For several days I suffered what no tongue can tell for the best thing that ever happened to the State of Connecticut. It cut the churches loose from dependence on state support. It threw them wholly on their own resources and on God.”
- “The great aim of the Christian Church in its relation to the present life is not only to renew the individual man, but also to reform human society”
- “Christians loyal to the theology of the Reformation believed such an appeal left too little role for divine initiative. Some of them reproached Finney for excessive emotionalism, as other revivalists have been reproached before and since.”
- “Both sides wanted to encourage revivals. The Finneyites agreed not to call their colleagues “cold,”“unconverted,” or “dead”; the other side consented not to call the Finneyites “heretics,”“enthusiasts,” or “mad.””
- “A Methodist preacher in those days, when he felt that God had called him to preach, instead of hunting up a college or Biblical institute, hunted up a hard pony of a horse, and some traveling apparatus, and with his library always at hand, namely, Bible, Hymn Book, and [Methodist] Discipline, he started, and with a text that never wore out nor grew stale, he cried, “Behold the Lamb of God, that taketh away the sin of the world.” In this way he went through storms of wind, hail, snow, and rain; climbed hills and mountains, traversed valleys, plunged through swamps, swam swollen streams, lay out all night, wet, weary, and hungry, held his horse by the bridle all night, or tied him to a limb, slept with his saddle blanket for a bed, his saddle or saddle-bags for his pillow, and his old big coat or blanket, if he had any, for a covering…. Under such circumstances, who among us would now say, “Here am I, Lord, send me?”
- “Our final conclusion regarding all of these social results— good, bad, and questionable —is that in one sense they are only side effects of efforts that were ineffable and beyond mundane measuring, for the missionaries and church founders came above all to minister the consolations of religion— to bring word of amazing grace to wretched souls. In what measure they succeeded in that primary task God only knows.”
- Who was Lyman Beecher and what influence did he and his family have on American political and religious life?
- Describe the development of the separation of church and state in the early Republic?
- Explain and Expand: “Any establishment of religion, even as democratic a religion as Yankee Congregationalism, violated the tenets of Jeffersonian Republicanism.”
- Why and in what ways did the religious divide in the Early Republic manifest in the Federalist Republican divide?
- Describe how Lyman Beecher symbolized the transition from New England Puritanism to Yankee Progressivism
- Describe the emergence of temperance as a social and political issue in the Early Republic
- Compare and Contrast Charles Finney and Jonathan Edwards
- What was the “born again” experience as understood by Evangelicals in the Early Republic? How did this “born again” experience differ from the conversion experience of the Puritans and the “Inner Light” experience of Anabaptists and Pietists?
- Compare and Contrast Evangelicals in the Early Republic with Anabaptists and Pietists. How did English and German backgrounds factor into their differences?
- What common social themes and issues were common in Beecher’s fundamentalists and Finney’s evangelicals?
- How did slavery impact American fundamentalists and evangelicals?
- How did slavery impact American Catholics generally and Irish immigrants particularly?
- How did slavery impact “high church” (Eastern Orthodox, Anglican) congregations in America?
- How did slavery impact “low church” (Primitive Baptists, Quakers, German Brethren, etc) in America?
- In what ways did fundamentalism and evangelicalism impact denominations?
- What were “Circuit Riders” and what impact did they have on American frontier communities? What services did they provide the frontier aside from their religious mission? What were “Camp Meetings” and “Brush Arbor Meetings”?
- Describe the development of American Methodism? How did the name “Methodist” come into use?
- Compare and Contrast the development, beliefs and practices of Baptists and Methodists in America
- What role did George Whitfield and John Wesley have in the development of American Christianity?
- Describe the rise of “free” black churches and denominations in America
- Describe the “Second Great Awakening”. How is the label misleading? How is the label meaningful?
- What circumstances gave rise to the Second Great Awakening?
- What role did race and slavery play in the Second Great Awakening?
- How did the Second Great Awakening highlight the differences between rural and urban America?
- What were the economic teachings associated with the Second Great Awakening?
- Compare and Contrast the “First” and “Second” Great Awakenings
- What were the lasting impacts of the Second Great Awakening?
- How did gender impact different denominations and sects in America?
- How did Quakers fit into the religious landscape of the Second Great Awakening?
- In what ways did American life and circumstances begin to create a distinct “American Catholicism” in the early republic?
- What role did Catholic Evangelicals play in the Second Great Awakening?
- How were Jews in America impacted by the Second Great Awakening?
Articles and References
Continue reading American Notes by Charles Dickens, Chapters 9 11
Response / Thought Quotes
- “a wretched cavalcade… marching half naked women, and men loaded with chains, without being charged with any crime but that of being black, from one section of the United States to another, hundreds of miles.”
- “You have kindled a fire which all the waters of the ocean cannot put out, which seas of blood can only extinguish.”
- “If a dissolution of the Union must take place, let it be so! If civil war, which gentlemen so much threaten, must come, I can only say, let it come!”
- “A woman who brings a child every two years [is] more valuable than the best man of the farm.”
- “This momentous question, like a fire bell in the night, awakened and filled me with terror . I considered it at once as the knell of the union. It is hushed, indeed, for the moment. But this is a reprieve only, not a final sentence…. I regret that I am now to die in the belief, that the useless sacrifice of themselves by the generation of 1776, to acquire self-government and happiness to their country, is to be thrown away by the unwise and unworthy passions of their sons, and that my only consolation is to be, that I live not to weep over”
- “If slavery be the destined sword of the hand of the destroying angel which is to sever the ties of this Union, the same sword will cut in sunder the bonds of slavery itself. A dissolution of the Union for the cause of slavery would be followed by a servile war in the slave-holding States, combined with a war between the two severed portions of the Union. It seems to me that its result might be the extirpation of slavery from this whole continent; and, calamitous and desolating as this course of events in its progress must be, so glorious would be its final issue, that , as God shall judge me, I dare not say that it is not to be desired.”
- Describe the world “Cotton” made in the United States (north and south) and Europe
- Explain the expression “The Bank was saved but the people were ruined”
- Why did the end of the War of 1812 precipitate a great migration?
- What was the Creek “cession”?
- How did Jackson’s victory at New Orleans and his subsequent invasion of Florida encourage migration to the Southwest?
- Compare and Contrast the political incorporation of the Old Northwest and the Old Southwest
- Compare and Contrast migration to the Old Northwest and the Old Southwest
- How and why did opinions about slavery evolve over the first 30 years of the Republic?
- Compare and Contrast the institutions of “Land-Lord” and “Labor-Lord”
- What circumstances and events led to the crisis over Missouri?
- Why did Maine become a factor in the poltical struggle over Missouri?
- What were the elements of the Missouri Compromise?
- What were some of the common characteristics of the post War of 1812 Native American treaties?
- Compare and Contrast the treaties with Native Americans in the old Northwest and the old Southwest
- In 1800 what were the lands inhabited by the Cherokee? How did the change by 1822?
- In 1800 what were the lands inhabited by the Creeks? How did the change by 1822?
- In 1800 what were the lands inhabited by the Choctaw? How did the change by 1822?
- In 1800 what were the lands inhabited by the Chickasaw? How did the change by 1822?
- What were the characteristics of the Alabama Constitution of 1819?
- What were the characteristics of the Mississippi Constitution of 1817?
- Compare and Contrast the Alabama 1819 and Mississippi 1817 Constitutions
Articles and Resources
Next week we will be reading “Some Considerations Concerning The Present State And Probable Future Of The Three Races That Inhabit The Territory Of The United States” and “The Present And Probable Future Condition Of The Indian Tribes That Inhabit The Territory Possessed By The Union” in Democracy in America and “Slavery” in American Notes by Charles Dickens (Chapter 27).
This week strongly consider reading Chapter 6 in Democracy in America
Note: It’s not the Battle of “Horse-Shoe” Bend. It’s the Battle of “Horse-Hoe” Bend.
- How was the Monroe administration an “era of good feelings”?
- How was the Monroe administration an “era of bad feelings”?
- In what ways was the Monroe the end of an era and the beginning of another?
- Compare and Contrast the ideas of “balanced institutions of government” and the “balance between two or more political parties” to preserve liberty in the post revolutionary generation
- How did the American system of government evolve to blend ideas regarding “balanced institutions of government” and the “balance between two or more political parties”?
- What social conditions helped and hindered finding a uniquely American republican balance of power?
- How did the composition of Monroe’s cabinet impact the balance of power in government?
- In what ways did events in Europe impact the course of events in the United States?
- In what ways did the plans of Tsar Alexander I effect relations between the United States and European powers?
- What was the “Holy Alliance” and how did it impact the United States?
- Describe the American conquest of Florida
- Who were the Seminoles? How were they distinct among the southwestern tribes and how were they representative of southwestern tribes?
- Describe the relationship between the Creek Wars and the Seminole Wars
- Describe the conduct of Andrew Jackson in Florida
- How did Monroe and Jackson tacitly conspired in the wars against the Seminoles?
- In what ways were the Red Stick War (Creek) and Florida (Seminole) wars connected with the War of 1812?
- What were the terms of the Treaty of Fort Jackson? How were they imposed?
- Describe the effective dissolution of the Federalist Party during the Monroe Administration and the impact it had on government?
- What was the Rush-Bagot Pact and the Convention of 1818?
- Describe the international situation regarding the Oregon Territory
- What was the territorial condition of the Old Southwest and Florida at the end of the Monroe administration? What situations had been resolved and which remained unresolved?
- Describe the impact of Andrew Jackson’s behavior up to the end of the Monroe Administration
- What were the points of the Monroe Doctrine, why was it declared and what impact did it have?
- How was the Monroe Doctrine related to the rest of President Monroe’s seventh annual message to Congress?
- Describe the situation in Spanish Latin America during the Madison and Monroe administrations
- Who was John Marshall and what role did he play in the development of the United States?
Response / Thought Quotes
- ” the answer to these rhetorical questions was negative. If someone had responded by pointing to 1.5 million persons held in chattel slavery, or to white women firmly deprived of rights of person and property, or to expropriated Native Americans, the president would have been startled, then irritated by the irrelevancy. To him and most of those in his audience, such people did not count. But within the next generation, that assumption would be seriously challenged.”
- “Discord does not belong to our system.”
- “Beware how you give a fatal sanction, in this infant period of our republic, scarcely yet two score years old, to military insubordination. Remember that Greece had her Alexander, Rome her Caesar, England her Cromwell , France her Bonaparte, and that if we would escape the rock on which they split, we must avoid their errors.”
- “General Jackson was authorized by the supreme law of nature and nations, the law of self-defense ,… to enter the Spanish territory of Florida in pursuit of, and to destroy, hostile, murdering savages, not bound by any obligation, who were without the practice of any moral principle reciprocally obligatory on nations.”
- How did issues of transportation and communication effect the War of 1812?
- What does the author mean by “the people’s prayers had already been answered”?
- Why was the news of Jackson’s success at New Orleans welcome news in Washington and for President Madison?
- How did black slaves react to the invasion of Washington by the British? How did the British respond to American black slaves?
- What reason was given by the British for the burning of Washington?
- How was Dolley Madison the Heroine of the War of 1812?
- In what ways did the schism between “Old” Republicans and “New” Republicans impact the War of 1812?
- How did Federalists react to the War of 1812?
- What was the Hartford Convention and what were its goals?
- What were the resolutions of the Hartford Convention?
- What impact did the resolutions of the Hartford convention have on American politics?
- How did the White House get its name?
- How did the War of 1812 effect relations between the United States and British Canada?
- What were the terms of the Treaty of Ghent?
- What effect did the signing of the Treaty of Ghent have on the United States?
- What were the consequences of the Treaty of Ghent on Native Americans?
- What was the Treaty of Fort Jackson and what were its terms?
- Describe the relationship between President Madison and General Jackson?
- What were Andrew Jackson’s intentions towards Native American groups in 1814?
- What was the Second Treaty of Greenville and what were its terms?
- Describe the Barbary states and their history of conflict with the United States?
- Who were Commodore Stephen Decatur and Commodore William Bainbridge?
Response / Thought Quotes
- “Andrew Jackson acknowledged Madison “a great civilian,” but declared “the mind of a philosopher could not dwell on blood and carnage with any composure ,” and judged his talents “not fitted for a stormy sea.””
- “The president, patient and fair to a fault, listened to advice and then found it hard to make up his mind. He had allowed himself to be dragged reluctantly into war with Great Britain. In waging it, he showed himself a poor judge of men. No one in politics feared him, and he had never been able to control Congress. He was too nice.”
- “His first State of the Union message after the conclusion of peace gave Madison his best chance to leave a lasting mark as president, and he recognized the opportunity . Madison determined to draw the appropriate lessons from the nation’s narrow escape from disaster. Accordingly, his Seventh Annual Message to Congress , dated December 5, 1815,”
- “By a series of such treaties in the years immediately after 1814, Jackson obtained vast lands for white settlement. A historian has estimated his acquisitions at three-quarters of Alabama and Florida, one-third of Tennessee, one-fifth of Georgia and Mississippi, and smaller portions of Kentucky and North Carolina.”
- “Madison was an intellectual rather than an executive”
Articles and Resources
Next week we will be reading Chapter 3 in What Hath God Wrought.
(Please note: In this context America will refer to Canada, the United States and Mexico (including Central America)
- Why does the author state the history of the United States cannot be understood apart from its continental setting?
- In what ways was American society transformed between 1815 and 1846?
- How did communication and transportation effect the transformation of America?
- Describe the process of transformation along the Southwestern and Pacific Frontier with Mexico?
- How did colonial expansion effect Native agriculture?
- What does the phrase “beneficiaries of catastrophe” mean?
- What was the typical life of an American farmer around 1815? How did this change in the period leading to 1846?
- In what ways did Aaron Fuller represent the American farm family’s expectations and experiences
- What roles did women usually play on the family farm around 1815?
- How did the evolution of the fur trade from colonial times effect Americans and Natives?
- What was the myth of the “noble savage”?
- How did slavery and the slave trade (both continental and oceanic) evolve in the Northern states?
- Why did slavery evolve the way it did in the North?
- How did slavery and the slave trade evolve in the American borderland states (Southern, Western and Middle)?
- Why did slavery evolve the way it did in the American borderland states (Southern Western and Middle)?
- In what ways was the Southern plantation class “the great consumers of the American economy”?
- How did slavery and communalism enable the creation of a non-laboring consumers?
- How did American capitalism conflict with the values embodied in slavery and communalism?
- How did the American individualism of yeoman farmers in both the North and South conflict with the values embodied in slavery and communalism?
- In what ways did American capitalism and individualism in the North and slavery and communism in the South effect regional development?
Response / Thought Quotes
- “Many white contemporaries, even if compassionate, agreed with Alexis de Tocqueville that the Indians were “doomed” to die out entirely.”
- “Despite all the mutual cultural borrowing between Native and Euro-Americans, neither cultural synthesis nor multicultural harmony achieved acceptance with the white public or government.”
Begin Reading Democracy in America by Alexis de Tocqueville,Chapters 1 and 2. These chapters compliment our current reading in What Hath God Wrought. Next week our main focus will be on Chapter 3 and 4 in Democracy in America