Response / Thought Quotes
- “The three years that followed was a period of violent dissension within the tiny palisaded settlement, confusion of purpose, physical devastation, and the emergence of a permanent pattern of race conflict. Death was everywhere.”
- “Smith, in his Elizabethan love of drama and pageantry, may have relished the feasts and ceremonies, but most of his contacts with the natives were ruthless raids on their villages to extract corn and other supplies for the starving settlers. When his demands were not met, he threatened murder, took hostages at gunpoint, “negotiated” by intimidation, and without hesitation seized from the natives precious supplies that were necessary for their tribes’ survival. Believing the Indians to be inherently barbarous, he attributed to them deceits and plots they did not have and provoked them in ways they did not understand.”
- “Then the ultimate catastrophes began. A few of the “gastely and pale” inhabitants of the fort—we do not know how many—did “those things w[hi]ch seame incredible, as to digge upp deade corp[s]es outt of graves and to eate them … and some have Licked upp the Bloode w[hi]ch hathe fallen from their weake fellowes.” And even beyond that, Percy wrote, one man murdered his wife, “Ripped the Childe outt of her woambe … Chopped the Mother in pieces and sallted her for his foode.” Forced to confess “by torture haveinge hunge by the Thumbes w[i]th weightes att his feete a quarter of an howere,” the murderer was executed. Many of those who “To eate … did Runn away unto the Salvages” fared no better: “we never heard of [them] after”
- “The Indians were not even bothering to attack the protected blockhouse since they assumed the people within it would shortly perish.”
- Summarize the founders of the Jamestown colony
- How were the instructions from the corporation given to the Jamestown settlers?
- What were the instructions given to the Jamestown settlers?
- In what ways did the Jamestown founders react to and comply with the instructions they received?
- Summarize what the Jamestown settlers found when they entered the James River
- Describe the geography of the Jamestown location from human and military points of view
- Describe the process of initial settlement at Jamestown
- Specifically what were the instructions to the colonists about Native Americans and what does this reflect?
- Specifically what was the attitude and intention of the colonists towards Native Americans
- In what pragmatic ways did the Jamestown colony grow
- What impact did Newport’s second mission have on Jamestown
- In what ways did a détente develop between the Jamestown colonies and Native Americans? Why did this occur?
- Describe Captain John Smith and the role he filled in Jamestown
- Describe the interaction between Jamestown as a colony and the Powhatan confederacy during early settlement
- Describe the interaction between John Smith and the Powhatans?
- In what ways did John Smith set or illustrate a pattern of Euro-native conflict / cooperations
- Why didn’t Powhatan destroy Jamestown once they became a security threat?
- Compare and Contrast: the motives and intentions of the Jamestown “Settlers” and the Jamestown “Colonizers”
- Describe the grey middle area between “Settler” and “Colonizer”
- Describe the Jamestown settlers early attempts at horticulture and agriculture
- Describe the Jamestown settlers early attempts at industry
- Compare and Contrast: the quality of life in London and the quality of life in Jamestown
- Compare and Contrast: the quality of life in Jamestown and the Powhatan villages
- In what ways did the disparity in quality of life between Jamestown and Powhatan impact these societies and how did they react to this impact
- Explain and Expand: “By such means a marginal survival was preserved”
- Describe the events of Jamestown the winter John Smith was recalled to England
- Who was Thomas Gates and what immediate impact did he have on Jamestown (to be continued…)
- Compare and Contrast: Thomas Gates and John Smith (to be continued…)
Articles and Resources
Response / Thought Quotes
- “It was into this still-traditional though changing, animist, violently competitive, and delicately poised world, constantly beset by disbalancing shocks, that a small contingent of Englishmen arrived in 1607. They were people whose way of life, sensibilities, assumptions, skills, knowledge, social relations, and aspirations—their entire experience and view of the world and the universe—could scarcely have been more different from those of the people who watched their arrival from the shores of Chesapeake Bay.”
- “Yet they were clearly barbarians”
- “These mingled images of natives in the alien lands of the Atlantic world—advanced but satanic people whose wealth and labor could easily be exploited; simple, innocent, natural folk whose resources were as yet unknown and who could presumably be led, through Christianity, to higher stages of civilization; and brutish, debased people condemned by their animal-like wildness to live beyond an exclusionary pale—such visions had little in common except barbarousness, paganism, and the threat of dark mysteries as yet unrevealed. The inconsistency of these images would in itself prove to be a force in race relations in North America.”
- “It is less surprising that the annals of their sojourn in America record endless turmoil and conflict—that they were hopelessly improvident and constantly engaged in quarrels among themselves and in deadly warfare with the natives—than that the settlement they led survived at all.”
- Explain and Expand: “Spirit existed, mind existed, not as a part of the shared physical world but apart from it; these were unique attributes of humanity.”
- Explain and Expand: “Their relation to the land was the heart of their world.”
- Compare and Contrast: The living conditions for working / working poor in Britain and the Native Americans they encountered in moving to America
- How did Elizabeth’s long reign impact British colonialism?
- Describe the “British ideology of empire”
- Who was Richard Hakluyt and how did he impact British colonialism
- Explain and Expand: “The dominant energizing force in the early seventeenth century, however, was the newly empowered commercial organizations”
- Compare and Contrast: the goals and motivations of the English landed class and the English merchant class
- Who was Humphrey Gilbert and how did he impact British colonialism
- React and Respond: “The image that informed Englishmen had of the American Indian population on the eve of permanent settlement in America was an inconsistent blend of notions derived from scattered sources, all of which reinforced an assumption of immense European superiority in religion, culture, power, and capacity.”
- How did British views of the pre-historic Picts impact their views of Native Americans? “how that the inhabitants of the great Brettanie have bin in times past as savvage as those of Virginia.”
- In what ways did the English experience in Ireland impact their actions in America? “The “wild Irish” were said by would-be colonizers in the 1560s to be godless.”
- Explain and Expand: “they both lived in worlds that were at least in part experienced as magical.”
- React and Respond: “For the English, magic and witchcraft were not abnormal and extraordinary but commonplace and realistic, and that would be especially true in North America, for that distant land was known to be “one of the dark places of the earth,” one of the “wild partes” ultimately ruled by Satan and his minions; there the native priests were known to be “no other but such as our witches are.””
- Explain and Expand: “was from this advanced, modernizing world, still in many ways close to its medieval origins, that the first English colonists in North America were drawn.”
- Describe the two groups of English settlers that left for North America in 1606
- Describe the characteristics of the group of English colonizers that landed at Jamestown
- Who were the leaders of the Jamestown colony and what skills did they bring to the settlement?
- Who was Christopher Newport and what impact did he have on colonization in America?
- Who was Bartholomew Gosnold and what impact did he have on colonization of America
- Who was George Kendall and what impact did he have on colonization in America?
- Who was John Smith and what was his life experience before coming to Jamestown
- What was the significance of the pamphlet “Good News from Virginia”
- Explain and Expand: “In the first years of Virginia’s European history these representatives of England’s affluent intelligentsia would explore the Indians’ world, report on it, attempt to understand it and to conceive ways of exploiting it.”
Response / Thought Quotes
- “They lived crowded lives … no less real for being invisible”
- “The question for the leaders of the native American peoples on the eve of the English settlements—still confident, still hopeful for the future—was not how to destroy the invaders and wipe out the pathologies they brought with them, but how to use the strangers and their goods within the traditional culture, how to absorb the apparent benefits of European civilization, which they had so far found merely attractive but which would soon become useful, and ultimately indispensable.”
- What does the author hope to tell the reader about “The Barbarous Years” in the introduction
- Explain and Expand: “They lived crowded lives” and “no less real for being invisible”
- Compare and Contrast: The impact of European settlement on the Algonquians and the Iroquois
- How was Native culture especially susceptible to disruption by European cultures?
- Compare and Contrast: Societies formed around stability and balance and Societies formed around change and progress
- Explain and Expand: The conflict between Societies formed around stability and balance and Societies formed around change and progress
- What institutions and social structures underpinned Native American stability and balance
- Compare and Contrast: Native American conceptions of spirit and religion with European (specifically English Protestant) conceptions of spirit and religion
- Compare and Contrast: the role of masculinity in Native and European culture
- Describe the role violence played in the lives of Native Americans
- How did the role of violence impact the stability of Native American society
- Describe some of the common living attributes of eastern seaboard Native Americans
- Describe how “east coast networks” of transportation and communication impacted Native American communities
- How did the insertion of land “ownership” disrupt the transportation and communication networks of Native Americans
- What were the two major language groups of eastern woodland / seaboard Native Americans?
- Describe the life circumstances and community structure of Powhattan society at the time of the arrival of the English
- What was the Iroquois Confederacy
- Describe the structure of Native American tribes in Southern New England
- In what ways had the fur trade impacted Native Americans of “British American” before the arrival of the English?