History Primary Source

Franklin Roosevelt :: September 1, 1939 :: An Appeal to Great Britain, France, Italy, Germany, and Poland to Refrain from Air Bombing of Civilians

The ruthless bombing from the air of civilians in unfortified centers of population during the course of the hostilities which have raged in various quarters of the earth during the past few years, which has resulted in the maiming and in the death of thousands of defenseless men, women and children, has sickened the hearts of every civilized man and woman, and has profoundly shocked the conscience of humanity.

If resort is had to this form of inhuman barbarism during the period of the tragic conflagration with which the world is now confronted, hundreds of thousands of innocent human beings who have no responsibility for, and who are not even remotely participating in, the hostilities which have now broken out, will lose their lives. I am therefore addressing this urgent appeal to every Government which may be engaged in hostilities publicly to affirm its determination that its armed forces shall in no event, and under no circumstances, undertake the bombardment from the air of civilian populations or of unfortified cities, upon the understanding that these same rules of warfare will be scrupulously observed by all of their opponents. I request an immediate reply.

The “Jewel Voice Broadcast” – Hirohito’s unconditional surrender message to the Allies

 
To our good and loyal subjects:  After pondering deeply the general trends of the world and the actual conditions obtaining in our empire today, we have decided to effect a settlement of the present situation by resorting to an extraordinary measure.
 
We have ordered our Government to communicate to the Governments of the United States, Great Britain, China and the Soviet Union that our empire accepts the provisions of their joint declaration.
 
To strive for the common prosperity and happiness of all nations as well as the security and well-being of our subjects is the solemn obligation which has been handed down by our imperial ancestors and which we lay close to the heart.
 
Indeed, we declared war on America and Britain out of our sincere desire to insure Japan’s self-preservation and the stabilization of East Asia, it being far from our thought either to infringe upon the sovereignty of other nations or to embark upon territorial aggrandizement.
 
But now the war has lasted for nearly four years.  Despite the best that has been done by everyone–the gallant fighting of our military and naval forces, the diligence and assiduity of out servants of the State and the devoted service of our 100,000,000 people–the war situation has developed not necessarily to Japan’s advantage, while the general trends of the world have all turned against her interest.
 
Moreover, the enemy has begun to employ a new and most cruel bomb, the power of which to do damage is, indeed, incalculable, taking the toll of many innocent lives.   Should we continue to fight, it would not only result in an ultimate collapse and obliteration of the Japanese nation, but also it would lead to the total extinction of human civilization.
 
Such being the case, how are we to save the millions of our subjects, nor to atone ourselves before the hallowed spirits of our imperial ancestors?  This is the reason why we have ordered the acceptance of the provisions of the joint declaration of the powers.
 
We cannot but express the deepest sense of regret to our allied nations of East Asia, who have consistently cooperated with the Empire toward the emancipation of East Asia.
 
The thought of those officers and men as well as others who have fallen in the fields of battle, those who died at their posts of duty, or those who met death [otherwise] and all their bereaved families, pains our heart night and day.
 
The welfare of the wounded and the war sufferers and of those who lost their homes and livelihood is the object of our profound solicitude.  The hardships and sufferings to which our nation is to be subjected hereafter will be certainly great.
 
We are keenly aware of the inmost feelings of all of you, our subjects.  However, it is according to the dictates of time and fate that we have resolved to pave the way for a grand peace for all the generations to come by enduring the [unavoidable] and suffering what is unsufferable.  Having been able to save *** and maintain the structure of the Imperial State, we are always with you, our good and loyal subjects, relying upon your sincerity and integrity.
 
Beware most strictly of any outbursts of emotion that may engender needless complications, of any fraternal contention and strife that may create confusion, lead you astray and cause you to lose the confidence of the world.
 
Let the entire nation continue as one family from generation to generation, ever firm in its faith of the imperishableness of its divine land, and mindful of its heavy burden of responsibilities, and the long road before it.  Unite your total strength to be devoted to the construction for the future.  Cultivate the ways of rectitude, nobility of spirit, and work with resolution so that you may enhance the innate glory of the Imperial State and keep pace with the progress of the world.

Richard Nixon: Books, Resources and Biographies

 

 

The Gilded Age, Populist and Progressive Era Reading Group

Chapter 20: Imperial Dreams (Part 1) :: American Colossus by H.W. Brands

Response / Thought Quotes

  • “The republic is something more than a local policy. It is a general principle, not to be forgotten at any time, especially when the opportunity is presented of bringing an immense region within its influence.”
  • “They see wealth and poverty side by side. They note great inequality of social position and social chances. They eagerly set about the attempt to account for what they see, and to devise schemes for remedying what they do not like. In their eagerness to recommend the less fortunate classes to pity and consideration, they forget all about the rights of other classes, they gloss over the faults of the classes in question, and they exaggerate their misfortunes and their virtues. They invent new theories of property, distorting rights and perpetuating injustice, as anyone is sure to do who sets about the readjustment of social relations with the interests of one group distinctly before his mind, and the interests of all other groups thrown into the background. When I have read certain of these discussions, I have thought that it must be quite disreputable to be respectable, quite dishonest to own property, quite unjust to go one’s own way and earn one’s own living, and that the only really admirable person was the good-for-nothing.”
  • “The work which the English race began when it colonized North America is destined to go on until every land on the earth’s surface that is not already the seat of an old civilization shall become English in its language, in its religion, in its political habits and traditions, and to a predominant extent in the blood of its people. The day is at hand when four-fifths of the human race will trace its pedigree to English forefathers, as four-fifths of the white people in the United States trace their pedigree today.”

Thought Questions

  • What is Turner’s “Frontier Thesis”
  • What factors (Russian and American) led into the transfer of Alaska to the United States
  • Who were William Sumner and Herbert Spencer and what is “social Darwinism”
  • Describe the fallacies associated with the concept of “social Darwinism”
  • Explain and Expand: “Most significantly, the war confirmed the redemptive power of American democracy.”
  • Compare and Contrast: John Fiske and Charles Sumner
  • Describe the relationship between war and social Darwinism
  • Describe the relationship between American religion and social Darwinism
  • Who was Alfred Thayer Mahan and how did he influence American imperialism
  • Describe the American conquest of Hawaii

Primary Sources

Articles and Resources

Further Reading

 

 

Economic Development, Slavery and Labor in American History The History of American Transportation and Communication Reading and Study Group

Chapter 3: The Growth of the Market and Labor’s Response :: Labor in America: A History by Melvyn Dubofsky

Response / Thought Quotes

  • “Slave labor, then, underwrote economic expansion, the rise of capitalist markets, and embryonic industrial growth while creating a wealthy and powerful class of plantation lords, bankers, merchants, and industrialists.”
  • “What distinguishes the present from every other struggle in which the human race has been engaged is, that the present is, evidently, openly and acknowledgedly, a war of class.…It is the ridden people of the earth who are struggling to throw from their backs the ‘booted and spurred’ riders whose legitimate title to starve as well as work them ​to death will no longer pass current; it is labour rising up against idleness, industry against money; justice against law and against privilege.”

Thought Questions

  • Define: “King Cotton”
  • Describe the connection between the recovery from the depression of 1819 and “King Cotton”
  • How did the recovery impact the demographics of the North and South
  • Describe the forms of collection action workers took in reaction to changing labor conditions in the early nineteenth century
  • Describe the goals and attributes of “Workingman’s Parties”
  • In what ways did the economic changes after the depression 1819 impact the development of Jacksonian era political parties
  • What “internal divisions” and “external pressures” impacted the different workingman’s parties?
  • Who were Thomas Skidmore, Robert Dale Owen, Fanny Wright and George Henry Evans
  • Explain and Expand: “As popular support for the original aims of the workingmen’s parties gathered increasing force, the major parties responded.”
  • What role did education reform play in workingman’s parties
  • What role did mechanics’ lien laws and imprisonment for debt play in workingman’s parties
  • Affirm or Refute: “The rise of workingmen’s parties did not presage Marxian socialism, but it did signify a realization by many workers that capitalism bore down on them unfairly, and it did place in question society’s dominant property relations.”

Primary Sources

Further Reading

 

 

The Jazz Age Great Depression New Deal Era and World War 2 America

Chapter 2: The Cannery Culture :: Cannery Women, Cannery Lives: Mexican Women, Unionization, and the California Food Processing Industry, 1930-1950 by Vicki L. Ruiz

Response / Thought Quotes

  • “Mexicans realize you are dependent upon them, they nearly strike for more money.”
  • “Very frequently, women, and in some instances, children carry the large boxes of fruit, weighing 40 pounds and over. . . . This is important not only because of the number of immature girls in the canneries but because of the presence of married women. Frequently these women are at work while pregnant, often working dangerously near to the day of confinement.”
  • “Each woman is apt to check up upon the earnings of her neighbor … if she is behind, she is certain that the checker has forgotten to record some of her work.”
  • “After work, my hands were red, swollen, and I was on fire! On the streetcar going home, I could hardly hold on, my hands hurt so much. The minute I got home, I soaked my hands in a pan of cold water. My father saw how I was suffering and he said, ‘Mi hija, you don’t have to go back there tomorrow.’ And I didn’t.”
  • “UCAPAWA consciously strove to recruit women for leadership positions at every level”

Thought Questions

  • Compare and Contrast: the roles work, family and social networks filled in the lives of cannery women
  • Describe the This “piece rate” pay scale and how it was used in the cannery industry
  • How did corporate concentration impact the workers in the cannery industry in California and how is Del Monte representative
  • Describe the seasonal structure of the industry and how this particularly impacted female workers
  • Compare and Contrast: The garment and textile industries on the East Coast with the food processing industry in California
  • Explain and Expand: “Often employer attitudes became translated into wage differentials”
  • Describe the impact of gender segregation in the cannery industry on female workers
  • What role did Mexican children fill in the cannery industry
  • What factors diminished cooperation and unity among cannery employees
  • Explain and Expand: “cross-cultural friendships usually ended at the cannery gates.”
  • How did child care impact female cannery workers

 

Colonial American History - The Atlantic and Pacific Worlds - New Spain and New France - British America

Chapter 4: Recruitment, Expansion, and Transformation :: The Barbarous Years: The Peopling of British North America: The Conflict of Civilizations, 1600-1675 by Bernard Bailyn

Response / Thought Quotes

  • “the governor’s place here may be as profittable as the lord deputies in Irland.”
  • “walk the streets…[and] apprehend all such vagrant children, both boys and girls, as they shall find on the streets and in the markets or wandering in the night”
  • “deny or refuse such order … they [will] receive no further relief from the parish wherein they inhabit.”
  • “young, handsome and honestlie educated maides … to be disposed in marriage to the most honest and industrious planters”
  • “had not your zealous desires over hasted you and the passage at sea bin soe unfortunate … whereby I had no warning at all given to provide for these people, I should have bine able to have done much better than now I can.”

Thought Questions

  • In what ways did propaganda provide settlers for the colony
  • Who were Sir Edwin Sandys and George Yeardley
  • Explain and Expand: A Declaration of the State of the Colonie
  • In what ways did population recruitment evolve under Sir Edwin Sandys
  • Compare and Contrast: The typical English recruit and the average continental European recruit
  • What role did forced child migrants play in the Jamestown settlement
  • How did the colony economically diversify under Sir Edwin Sandys
  • In what ways did gender impact the development of the colony and what steps did the company take to address the gender imbalance
  • Explain and Expand: “seeking, in the crude, stump-filled tobacco farms of this subtropical lowland, to re-create a world they had known.”
  • Describe the typical physical condition of new migrants to Virginia
  • What impact did Puritanism have on Jamestown and Virginia
  • Explain and Expand: “Among the arrivals in August of that year was the Dutch man-of-war that sold to the colony “20 and odd Negroes” (Angolan natives, they were not the first Africans to appear in the colony’s records: thirty-two—fifteen men and seventeen women—were listed in a muster of March 1619 as “in ye service of severall planters”).”
  • What role did communal farms play in the Virginia settlement

Articles and Resources

World War I The Russian Revolution and Stalinism

Chapter 3: Tsarism’s Most Dangerous Enemy (Part 1) :: Stalin: Paradoxes of Power, 1878-1928 by Stephen Kotkin

Response / Thought Quotes

  • “It is better that this come from above than from below”
  • “a form of conspicuous consumption on a national scale”

Thought Questions

  • What was Tsarism’s Most Dangerous Enemy?
  • In the opening quote why does the writer equate the granting of a Constitution with inspiring Revolution and why does he assume it is a situation unique to Russia
  • In what ways did the administrative example of Peter the Great allow the Russia Empire to continue
  • Describe the characteristics of Peter the Great’s reign
  • Compare and Contrast: the Russian and English nobility
  • Affirm or Refute: “modern Russia is but a metamorphosis of Muscovy.”
  • Explain and Expand: “The Russian state was top heavy and spread thin.”
  • Describe the European concept of “Autocratic Principle” and how it was applied in Russia
  • What were the long term impacts of the Crimean War on the Russian tsar and his power
  • Explain and Expand: “Tsarism suffered a debilitation it could not overcome: the imperatives of autocracy undermined the state.”
  • Who was Alexander Ulyanov
  • Describe the genesis of a modern “political police” security service in Russia
  • Explain and Expand: “Russia’s autocracy was deliberately archaic. Tsarism choked on the very modernity that it desperately needed and, to an extent, pursued in order to compete as a great power.”
  • Explain and Expand: the connections between “modernity” and colonialism and how Tsarist Russia fit into this mold
  • In what ways did(does) Russia’s landmass and geography impact its position in the great power world
  • What was the impact of Russian Far East relationships

Primary Sources

Articles and Resources

Further Reading

 

Colonial American History - The Atlantic and Pacific Worlds - New Spain and New France - British America

Chapter 9: Republicans, By Choice :: From Resistance to Revolution by Pauline Mailer

Response / Thought Quotes

  • “so much partiality to the soldiers and customhouse officers by the present Judges, that while things remained as they were, they would, on all such occasions, take satisfaction their own way,”
  • “put themselves in a state of war with us … and being the aggressors, if they perish, the fault is their own.”
  • “These tarrings and featherings,” John Adams complained in 1774, “this breaking open Houses by rude and insolent Rabbles, in Resentment for private Wrongs or in pursuance of private Prejudices and Passions, must be discountenanced.”
  • “should ever be as judicious, deliberate, and cautious in making full enquiry whether the party suspected be a real traitor, or criminal to a degree worthy of their notice, as any court of justice ought to do, and should give the accused as full and fair an opportunity to vindicate themselves if they are able.”
  • “This is the grandest Event which has ever yet happened Since the Controversy with Britain opened!” he wrote. “The Sublimity of it, charms me!”
  • “deprived of their liberty, abused in their persons, and suffered such barbarous cruelties, insults, and indignities, besides the loss of their property by the hands of lawless mobs and riots, as would have been disgraceful even for savages to have committed.”
  • “Nothing can ruin us but our Violence,” Samuel Adams warned from Philadelphia in May 1774. He urged Joseph Warren “to implore every Friend in Boston by every thing dear and sacred to Men of Sense and Virtue to avoid Blood and Tumult.” It was necessary to “give the other Provinces opportunity to think and resolve,” or Massachuetts would be left to perish alone, and the American cause with her.”
  • “and, while struggling for the noblest objects,—the liberties of your country, the happiness of posterity, and the rights of human nature,—the eyes, not only of North America and the whole British Empire, but of all Europe, are upon you.” How necessary, then, “that no disorderly behavior, nothing unbecoming our characters as Americans, as citizens, as Christians, be justly chargeable to us.”

Thought Questions

  • Why is there a comma present in the chapter title
  • It what sense was the American Revolution prior to independence “Revolutionary”
  • It what sense was the American Revolution prior to independence “Conservative”
  • It what sense was the American Revolution prior to independence “Reactionary”
  • In what ways did the blending of revolutionary, conservative and reactionary elements impact the American transition from resistance to revolution
  • In what ways was the period of 1765 to 1776 an ideological age in American history
  • In what ways was the period of 1765 to 1776 a pragmatic age in American history
  • What was the Continental Association of 1774?
  • Who said “Nothing can ruin us but our Violence” and why did he state it
  • Affirm or Refute: The author overstates the impact of the common man and underestimates the impact of leaders on the path from Resistance to Revolution
  • Simply outline the major phases on the path from Resistance to Revolution and the primary characteristics that moved the phase along to the next
  • Explain and Expand: “To John’s oppressions, and Henry the Third’s weakness, we owe the two great charters. To Henry the Eighth we are indebted for our freedom from the power of the Court of Rome, and the Pope’s supremacy. To James and Charles the First we are beholden for the petition of right; And lastly to James the Second’s bigotry we must place the settlement of the revolution.”

Further Reading

 

The American Early Republic and Frontier Era History

Chapter 5: Diverse Economies Moving toward Commercial Ends  :: Trans-Appalachian Frontier, Third Edition: People, Societies, and Institutions, 1775-1850 by Malcom J. Rohrbough

Response / Thought Quotes

  • “Between 1795 and 1815 the dominant feature in the economic development of the trans-Appalachian frontier was the Ohio-Missouri-Mississippi river trade axis. This broad continental water highway, connecting Pittsburgh—by way of Louisville and Cincinnati—and St. Louis with Natchez and New Orleans, was the main channel of trade and the route of immigrants.”
  • “Stretches of treeless prairie, cleared bottomland, or open woods that had supported people for centuries before Euro-Americans came to know them.”
  • “They followed the well-beaten Southern path to wealth and upward mobility: they acquired more land and more slaves farther west.”
  • “The first field of corn I planted for myself was about 10 acres I kind of scratched it over with the plow. I then fixed a little crib on the plow so that we placed our first child I furrowed out and my wife dropped the corn. Then when near noon she would take the Child and go to the home and get dinner.—While she would be getting dinner—I took the hoe and would cover the corn. We continued this way—with the child riding on the plow alternately until we finished our ten acres.”
  • “It was of no importance to the farmer, that his fields, with careful cultivation, would yield from 50 to 100 bushels of corn per acre, when a fourth part of the quantity would answer his purpose, there being no market for a surplus.”
  • “The important ingredients associated with the development of cotton cultivation on a large scale included the invention of a new machine called the cotton gin, which rapidly separated the seed from the fiber, and, over the next ten years, development of new strains of cotton better suited to the climate and more resistant to diseases.”

Thought Questions

  • Describe the role the Ohio River played in the economic development of the frontier
  • In what ways did the frontier reflect a “maturing and increasingly complex economy”
  • What was the “pioneer cycle”
  • Describe the geographic evolution of the Territory of Mississippi and the Territory of Orleans and how this was related to economic circumstances
  • Describe how slave labor (or the absence of) impacted the economic development and the nature of that development in the northern and southern frontiers
  • What were the results of the Treaty of San Lorenzo (Spanish American Treaty of 1795)
  • Describe the southern cycle of substance farming to commercial agricultural enterprise
  • Compare and Contrast: the northern and southern cycles of substance farming to commercial agricultural enterprise
  • What and how did federal policies promote rapid frontier settlement
  • What political role did William Henry Harrison play in the settlement of the frontier
  • Explain and Expand: “Those who moved onto the land did so generally without regard to political boundaries.”
  • Explain and Expand: The ecological impact of the hogs brought to the southeast by Hernando De Soto
  • Explain the connection between the development of the Ohio River Valley and the port of New Orleans
  • Describe the essential and auxiliary industries that developed on the frontier
  • Describe the rise of cotton and sugar as export crops in the southeast
  • Compare and Contrast: sugar production in the southeastern frontier and sugar production in the Caribbean and old South

Primary Sources

Articles and Resources

Further Reading

 

World War 2 National Socialism and the Holocaust

Chapter 5: Who Planned To Attack Whom, And How? :: Absolute War: Soviet Russia in the Second World War” by Chris Bellamy

Response / Thought Quotes

  • “showed that the operational-strategic vision of many high-level commanders was far from perfect and required further assiduous and determined efforts to sharpen up the command and control of powerful formations and deep understanding of the character of conventional operations, their organization, planning and subsequent carrying through in practice.”
  • “what is taking place now is that numbers of men are being called up individually, not by classes. These include many but not all those born in second half 1921 who normally would not be called up until next autumn. There are also some individuals I know of age 23 and [previously] uncalled … called up this week. Also some N.C.O. reservists of 32. The whole thing is being done quietly and without publication of any official decree and it is therefore impossible at present to give estimate numbers involved except there seem a good many in Moscow.”
  • “It is completely normal that Staffs work out different variants of operations … They are certainly not always conditioned by the political aims of the Government. In the case of the Soviet General Staff, the matter is not just the fact that they planned for attack. What is dreadful is that these or other optimum variations were tackled too late and amongst too narrow a circle; thus to realise and execute these plans on 22 June was impossible as they were not ready.”
  • “Up till the end of March I was not convinced that Hitler was resolved on mortal war with Russia, nor how near it was. Our intelligence reports revealed in much detail the extensive German troop movements towards and into the Balkan states … But none of these necessarily involved the invasion of Russia and all were readily explainable by German interests and policy … That Germany should at that stage and, before leaving the Balkan scene, open another major war with Russia seemed to me too good to be true … There was no sign of lessening German strength opposite us across the Channel… The manner in which the German troop concentrations in Romania and Bulgaria had been glossed over and apparently accepted by the Soviet government, the evidence we had of large and invaluable supplies being sent to Germany from Russia [see Chapters 3 and 4], … all made it seem more likely that Hitler and Stalin would make a bargain at our expense rather than war upon each other.”

Thought Questions

  • Describe the circumstances surrounding the distrust between Hitler and Stalin prior to Operation Barbarossa and how that impacted planning on each side
  • Describe the evidence for and against the proposition that the Stalin was planning a preemptive attack on Germany
  • What factors were involved in Hitler’s decision to attack to the Soviet Union
  • In what ways did Hitler use misinformation against Stalin prior to the opening of hostilities
  • What information did Stalin possess prior to Operation Barbarossa that indicated an attack was being prepared
  • What were the main concerns Stalin had in relation to Germany prior to the outbreak of hostilities
  • What factors were involved in Stalin’s reaction to external information that Hitler was planning an attack on the Soviet Union
  • How did preconceived beliefs impact about the other impact Hitler and Stalin’s decision making
  • In what ways did National Socialist and Bolshevik ideology respectively impact the events leading up to the opening of hostilities
  • What role did British actions play in Stalin’s reaction to information about German intentions
  • How did British resolve impact Hitler’s choice of timing in attacking the Soviet Union
  • How did the situation in the Balkans impact the timing of Operation Barbarossa
  • Affirm or Refute: “Barbarossa was delayed — almost certainly with disastrous consequences for the Germans — because of the 27 March 1941 coup in Yugoslavia”
  • Affirm or Refute: “And by defeating the mighty French army so fast, the Wehrmacht had proved itself to be even more formidable than anyone had expected.”
  • Who was Sir Stafford Cripps and what significance did he have on events leading up to the German attack on the Soviet Union
  • Describe and explain the circumstances of the Red Army deployments in the period between the end of the Winter War and the opening of Operation Barbarossa
  • Describe Zhukov’s “May 15plan, its origins and purpose
  • Describe and explain the deployment and conditions of Soviet forces in June 1941
  • Explain and Expand: “The author believes that Stalin was getting ready to attack Germany at some point, but inclines to the more traditional view that 1942 would have been the preferred option.”
  • Describe the evolution of German planning for Operation Barbarossa
  • Describe what the author means by the “Hess Enigma”
  • Who was Franz Halder and what role did he play in the planning for Operation Barbarossa

Articles and Resources

Further Reading

 

World War 2 National Socialism and the Holocaust

Chapter 4: Further Soviet Expansion And Cooperation With Germany, November 1939 To June 1941 :: Absolute War: Soviet Russia in the Second World War by Chris Bellamy

Response / Thought Quotes

  • “Our units saturated by technology (especially artillery and transport vehicles), are incapable of maneuver and combat in this theatre: they are burdened and chained down by technology which can only go by road. The troops are frightened by the forest and cannot ski.”
  • “The troops were ill-prepared for operations in forests and for coping with freezing weather and impassable roads … Artillery material was of particular concern. During the freezing weather in Finland, the semiautomatic mechanisms in the guns failed. New types of lubricants had to be developed immediately.”
  • “Today we are too fascinated with manoeuvre wars and we underestimate the struggle to break through defensive fortifications like the Maginot and Siegfried lines and others like them”
  • “Soviet regular troops are now so firmly in occupation of Outer Mongolia that there is no longer any pretense that this area does not come under the direct control of the Trans-Baikal Military district.”
  • “In this respect he was the complete opposite of Stalin, who amazed everyone with his ostensible modesty and total lack of desire to impress. Unlike Hitler, Stalin thought that if his limitless power over millions of his subjects was evident, there was no need to advertise it.”
  • “… to be a historic personality. I also flatter myself with the thought that I will also go down in history. That is why it is natural for two political leaders like us to meet. Please, Mr Molotov, transmit to Mr Stalin my greetings and my proposal that we hold a meeting in the not too-distant future.”
  • “If Britain is defeated,’ said Molotov, who was not renowned for his sense of humour, ‘why are we sitting in a shelter? And whose bombs are falling so close their explosions can be heard even here?”
  • “… everything looks all right in the north. Finland has been very naughty to us, so we moved our border away from Leningrad. The Baltics — these traditional Russian lands — belong to us again. The Belorussians are all living together now, the Ukrainians, together, and the Moldovans, together. Looks all right in the west.”

Thought Questions

  • Describe the background and purge of the Soviet military in the late 1930s
  • Why was Finland a complicating factor in the defense of the Soviet Union?
  • Describe the military importance of the Gulf of Finland
  • Describe the territorial negotiations between Finland and the Soviet Union prior to the Soviet Invasion
  • Describe how the 1939– 40 Soviet- Finnish war, known as the ‘Winter War’ unfolded and concluded
  • What was the ‘Mannerheim Line’?
  • In what ways did the Soviet Finnish Winter War impact Soviet military doctrine and planning?
  • In what ways did the Soviet Finnish war reinforce existing beliefs in Germany?
  • In what ways did the Soviet experience in the Winter War impact Soviet preparations for war with Germany?
  • Compare and Contrast: the occupation of the individual Baltic states
  • Describe The Battle at Khalkin Gol (Nomonhan) and its impact on the Soviet military
  • Compare and Contrast: The interaction of Hitler and Stalin and to their respective military establishments before war
  • Compare and Contrast: the evolution of relationships of Hitler and Stalin to their respective military leaders over the course of 1939-41
  • Describe the location and military significance of Bessarabia and its territorial changes
  • Describe the location and military significance of Bukovina and its territorial changes
  • Describe the location and military significance of Moldova and its territorial changes
  • What evidence is there to Finnish use of chemical weapons during the Winter War?
  • What was the purpose of the NKVD in 1939-40 and how did it participate in military activities and civilian persecution?
  • What was the “Stavka” in 1939-40? What were its strengths and limitations? What was the source of these and how were they acted upon in light on the events of 1939-40?
  • In light of the development of the Red Air force, Explain and Expand: “Stalin seems to have greatly underrated the value of radios”
  • What is the concept of inter-arm cooperation and why / In what ways was it crucial during 1939-40?
  • Explain and Expand: “The Soviet-Finnish war therefore reinforced many ideas that were already around.”
  • What is the concept of “Auftragstaktik”
  • In what ways did modern equipment prove to be a liability as well as an asset in the 1939-40 military activities (both Soviet and German)?
  • Explain and Expand: “One of the key lessons learned was the importance of camouflage”
  • Explain and Expand: “At the politico-strategic level, the key lesson was that you cannot always count on assistance to be received in the invaded country”
  • What was the Soviet (and later German) system of dual command?
  • Why was Stalin relieved by the German occupation of Norway?
  • Compare and Contrast: The geographic position of Odessa and Leningrad
  • How did Germany tempt the Soviet Union with inclusion in the tripartite pact between Germany, Italy and Japan
  • Summarize the misunderstandings that Hitler and Germany and Stalin and the Soviet Union had developed or reinforced by the events of 1939-40
  • What were the key minerals that were provide to Germany by the Soviet Union in 1939-40
  • In what ways did the Soviet Union benefit from the economic relationship with Germany during 1939-40
  • Explain and Expand: “there was now nobody else to get in the way.”

Primary Sources

Articles and Resources

Further Reading

World War 2 National Socialism and the Holocaust

Chapter 4: Decent into Chaos :: The Coming of the Third Reich by Richard J. Evans

Response / Thought Quotes

  • “’For thirty years the army was my pride. For it I lived, upon it I laboured, and now, after four and a half brilliant years of war with unprecedented victories, it was forced to collapse by the stab- in- the- back from the dagger of the revolutionist, at the very moment when peace was within reach!‘”
  • “No enemy has overcome you!”
  • “Moreover, the American President Woodrow Wilson had declared, in his celebrated ‘Fourteen Points’ which he wished the Allied powers to be working for, that every nation should be able to determine its own future, free from interference by others. If this applied to the Poles, the Czechs and the Yugoslavs, then surely it should apply to the Germans as well? But it did not. … The Austrians wanted union; the Germans were prepared to accept union; the principle of national self- determination demanded union. The fact that the Allies forbade union remained a constant source of bitterness in Germany and condemned the new ‘Republic of German- Austria’, as it was known, to two decades of conflict- ridden, crisis- racked existence in which few of its citizens ever came to believe in its legitimacy.”
  • “Versailles was condemned as a dictated peace, unilaterally imposed without the possibility of negotiation. The enthusiasm which so many middle- class Germans had demonstrated for war in 1914 flipped over into burning resentment at the terms of peace four years later.”
  • “On 15 November 1918 I was on the way from the hospital at Bad Nauheim to my garrison at Brandenburg. As I was limping along with the aid of my cane at the Potsdam station in Berlin, a band of uniformed men, sporting red armbands, stopped me, and demanded that I surrender my epaulettes and insignia. I raised my stick in reply; but my rebellion was soon overcome. I was thrown (down?), and only the intervention of a railroad official saved me from my humiliating position. Hate flamed in me against the November criminals from that moment. As soon as my health improved somewhat, I joined forces with the groups devoted to the overthrow of the rebellion. … I shall never forget the scene when a comrade without an arm came into the room and threw himself on his bed crying. The red rabble, which had never heard a bullet whistle, had assaulted him and torn off all his insignia and medals. We screamed with rage. For this kind of Germany we had sacrificed our blood and our health, and braved all the torments of hell and a world of enemies for years.”
  • “The First World War legitimized violence to a degree that not even Bismarck’s wars of unification in 1864-70 had been able to do. Before the war, Germans even of widely differing and bitterly opposed political beliefs had been able to discuss their differences without resorting to violence.”
  • “It was in this atmosphere of national trauma, political extremism, violent conflict and revolutionary upheaval that Nazism was born.”
  • “provided the spur to translate extreme ideas into violent action.”

Thought Questions

  • What were the consequences of defeat for Germany?
  • How did Germans react to the consequences of defeat?
  • In what ways did defeat specifically impact German nationalists and conservatives?
  • In what ways did defeat specifically impact German Social Democrats?
  • In what ways did gender impact the experience of defeat?
  • Explain and Expand: “In November 1918 most Germans expected that, since the war was being brought to an end before the Allies had set foot on German soil, the terms on which the peace would be based would be relatively equitable. … Given the extent of what Germans had expected to gain in the event of victory, it might have been expected that they would have realized what they stood to lose in the event of defeat.”
  • What were the circumstances and terms of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
  • What were the circumstances and terms of the Armistice of 11 November 1918 which ended the military conflict and how did it impact the eventual treaty
  • What were the circumstances and terms of the Treaty of Versailles and how did it start a political and social conflict
  • What is the “Stab in the back” myth?
  • Explain and Expand: “principal aim was to make the world safe for democracy.”
  • Explain and Expand: “As a far from incidental by- product, Ludendorff also reckoned that if the terms were not so acceptable to the German people, the burden of agreeing to them would thereby be placed on Germany’s democratic politicians rather than on the Kaiser or the army leadership. … The army simply melted away as the Armistice of 11 November was concluded, and the democratic parties were left, as Ludendorff had intended, to negotiate, if negotiate was the word, the terms of the Treaty of Versailles.”
  • In what ways did the union of Germany and German- speaking Austria impact the post war situation?
  • Explain and Expand: “The idea took root in Germany that the whole concept of war crimes, indeed the whole notion of laws of war, was a polemical invention of the victorious Allies based on mendacious propaganda about imaginary atrocities.”
  • What was the purpose of Article 231 in the treaty and how was it interpreted by the German public and misrepresented by German nationalists
  • Explain and Expand: “In many ways, the peace settlement of 1918- 19 was a brave attempt at marrying principle and pragmatism in a dramatically altered world. In other circumstances it might have stood a chance of success. But not in the circumstances of 1919, when almost any peace terms would have been condemned by German nationalists who felt they had been unjustly cheated of victory.”
  • Who were the “Pan- Germans”
  • Who was Wolfgang Kapp?
  • Explain and Expand: “What transformed the extreme nationalist scene was not the war itself, but the experience of defeat, revolution and armed conflict at the war’s end. A powerful role was played here by the myth of the ‘front generation’ of 1914- 18, soldiers bound together in a spirit of comradeship and self- sacrifice in a heroic cause which overcame all political, regional, social and religious differences.”
  • How did the experience of defeat in 1918 shape German nationalism?
  • What role did paramilitary organizations fill for German World War I veterans
  • What role did paramilitary organizations fill for German men who were too young to participate in World War I?
  • Explain and Expand: “Germany failed to make the transition from wartime back to peacetime after 1918. Instead, it remained on a continued war footing; at war with itself, and at war with the rest of the world”
  • What paramilitary organizations identified with particular political parties?
  • How did the existence and activities of paramilitary organizations impact German democracy?
  • Who were Rosa Luxemburg and Karl Liebknecht
  • In what ways did the Bolshevik Revolution in Russia impact the German revolution in 1918-19
  • Explain and Expand: “These events left a permanent legacy of bitterness and hatred on the political left, made worse by another major outbreak of political violence in the spring of 1920.”
  • Explain and Expand: “shot while trying to escape”
  • Explain and Expand: “Political violence reached fresh heights in 1923, a year marked not only by the bloody suppression of an abortive Communist uprising in Hamburg but also by gun battles between rival political groups in Munich and armed clashes involving French- backed separatists in the Rhineland.”

Primary Sources

Articles and Resources

Further Reading

 

Colonial American History - The Atlantic and Pacific Worlds - New Spain and New France - British America

Chapter 3 (Part 2) :: The Barbarous Years: The Peopling of British North America: The Conflict of Civilizations, 1600-1675 by Bernard Bailyn

Response / Thought Quotes

  • “His soldiers, mimicking an Indian gesture of hospitality, lured the Kecoughtan villagers into the open with the piping, dancing, and drumming of a young taborer, then killed fourteen of the men, women, and children who had come out to watch, and looted their lodges and fertile maize fields. A month later De La Warr sent Percy and seventy men to avenge the Paspaheghs’ failure to return arms and captives. Nothing and no one was spared. Percy’s troops killed fifteen or sixteen natives on the spot, burned down the village houses, and destroyed the crops. Returning downriver with the tribe’s “queen,” her children, and a male Indian captive in tow, Percy, criticized by his troops for burdening them with these encumbrances, “cawsed the Indians heade to be Cutt of[f],” and then was persuaded by his troops to allow them to kill the children, which they did by throwing them overboard and “shotingge owt their Braynes in the water.” The queen, for the time, was spared. After a foray inland to burn another village’s houses and crops and to destroy their “Spacyous Temple, cleane and neatly kept” though it was, Percy arrived back in Jamestown, to be told that the governor was “discontente” because the queen had not been disposed of. De La Warr thought it best, Percy was told, “to Burne her.” But “haveinge seene so mutche Blood shedd thatt day,” Percy “desired to see noe more,” and in any case, burning, he felt, was not “fittinge.” He therefore decided that if the queen was to be murdered it should be “by shott or Sworde to give her a quicker dispatche.” So Capt. James Davis, a remorseless “taskmaster” at the forts, took the woman into the woods and “putt her to the sworde.””
  • “When De La Warr suspected that some natives visiting the Jamestown fort were spies, he “caused one to have his hands cutt of[ f], and so sentte [him] unto his fellowes to geve them warneinge for attemptinge the lyke.””
  • “No longer thinking, as Smith had done, simply of the desperate need for life- saving supplies, Dale, a participant in the ruthless slaughter of noncombatants in Ireland on the ground that “terrour… made short Warrs,” launched a program of deliberate military provocation and savage harassment. His campaign to reduce the natives to the status of subject people and drive them off the most valuable lands was part of what has been called England’s “First Anglo- Powhatan War (August 1609 to April 1614).””
  • “translated England’s ad terrorem tactics from the Irish wars of the late sixteenth century—specifically the use of deception, ambush, and surprise, the random slaughter of both sexes and all ages, the calculated murder of innocent captives, and the destruction of entire villages … [The attacks] neither discriminated between combatant and noncombatant victims nor between hostile and friendly tribes.”
  • “Having succeeded, however, in gaining these major goals and in creating terror among the Indians, Dale drew back in 1612–13 to secure his victories and develop a strategy for the next moves. The English received an unexpected advantage when, in March 1613, they captured Pocahontas and found her susceptible both to conversion to Christianity and to John Rolfe’s romantic, and missionary, interest.”
  • “The first, failing experiments that had been made in growing tobacco were not of the native, local plant known to the Indians but of a Spanish variety imported from Trinidad, for which a market was known to exist in Europe. Two years later John Rolfe’s efforts to produce the plant that grew natively in the Chesapeake region were beginning to look promising, though the quality of the tobacco shipped was still judged too poor for English consumption. It was, however, easily produced on partly cleared land, and the farmers, desperate for some kind of cash crop, persisted. The quality of the crop gradually improved, especially as a result of experiments carried on by experts sent to Bermuda, and production rose in every planting season. In 1616, a mere 1,250 pounds were shipped to England; in 1617, almost 10,000 pounds; in 1618, almost 25,000; in 1620, almost 60,000. In all, by 1621 over 100,000 pounds of Virginia tobacco were sent to England; by 1625, almost 400,000.”

Thought Questions

  • Who were the Kecoughtans?
  • Who was George Percy, what role did he fill in Jamestown and how did he impact relations with the Native Americans?
  • Who were the Appomattocs
  • Describe the general state of relations between Native Americans and Jamestown during the period of De La Warr
  • Describe the general state of relations between Native Americans and Jamestown during the period of Thomas Gates
  • Compare and Contrast: Thomas Gates and De La Warr
  • How and why were the Virginia settlements collected together and (re)organized by Thomas Dale and Thomas Gates?
  • What was Dale’s Law and how did it impact Jamestown?
  • Describe the relationship between Thomas Gates and Thomas Date
  • Describe the circumstances leading to and the evolution of the First Anglo- Powhatan War?
  • Who was Bartolomé de Las Casas, what was the “Black Legend” and how did it impact English colonial expectations?
  • Explain and Expand: “The need for some such rationale grew with the escalation of conflict.”
  • Explain and Expand: “Some kind of reciprocity had been achieved. But the Indians saw it as the end of a process; the English saw it as a beginning.”
  • Explain and Expand: “While Gates and Dale were clamping a rigorous work routine on the colony’s settlers and while their “hammerours” were bringing devastation and terror to the Powhatans, the company’s fortunes at home had badly declined.”
  • How did circumstances and events change in London and Virginia that altered the situations for the colonists in Virginia
  • Who was John Rolfe
  • Describe the evolution of tobacco agriculture in early Virginia during the Jamestown period
  • Explain and Expand: “At that point the company entered its final phase, which for a few short years seemed to be leading to the brilliant success so long delayed. But it was a false dawn that led to another dark passage of bloodshed and terror—which might have been predicted.”

Articles and Resources

 

Colonial American History - The Atlantic and Pacific Worlds - New Spain and New France - British America

Chapter 3 (Part 1): The “Hammerours’ ” Regime :: The Barbarous Years: The Peopling of British North America: The Conflict of Civilizations, 1600-1675 by Bernard Bailyn

Response / Thought Quotes

  • “It was no doubt a remarkable coincidence that Gates, moving downstream with his rescue party and the survivors of Jamestown, met the advance boats of the rest of the delayed fleet of 1609, including the new governor, the third Baron De La Warr.”
  • “By 1609 Newport’s and others’ accounts of the internal squabbles in Jamestown and race conflicts in Virginia, together with the failure of the settlers to produce valuable goods or a new route to the Pacific, led Smith and his coinvestors to recast the entire venture. Their original idea of a fort, trading station, and base camp for exploration would never succeed. A permanent, self-supporting, and productive colony was needed, and they drew up plans to achieve it. The land would be owned by the company and worked by servants sent out and maintained at the company’s expense. The company would have a complete monopoly of all marketing of goods shipped home and would establish a severely coercive regime in the colony to overcome any future factionalism and enforce an effective work regime.”
  • “Besides ordinary laborers and four “honest and learned ministers,” artisans in thirty- three specified occupations were listed as necessary for the colony’s success. The most urgently needed were sawyers, fishermen, and “iron men for the furnace and hammer”: ten of each were required. Then came blacksmiths, carpenters, shipwrights, gardeners, fowlers, coopers, and vine- dressers— six of each; then turners, brickmakers, rope makers, pitch boilers, and “sturgeon dressers and preservers of the caveary [caviar]”— four each; and all the rest, including surgeons, druggists, “minerall men,” “planters of sugar- cane,” and “pearle drillers”— two each.”
  • “Hakluyt’s description of them as “hammerours” who would know how to “prepare” the Indians for “our preachers’ hands.””

Thought Questions

  • Summarize the experience of the Jamestown settlement under the original council
  • Summarize the experience of the Jamestown settlement under the management of John Smith
  • Describe the period between John Smith leaving Jamestown and the aborted abandonment of Jamestown
  • What is the meaning of The “Hammerours’ ” Regime
  • Who were Baron De La Warr, Thomas Smith, Thomas Dale and Thomas Gates
  • Describe the first relief expedition to Jamestown
  • Describe the second and third relief expeditions to Jamestown
  • In what ways did the supply and quality of labor impact the settlement of Jamestown
  • In what ways did the first financial restructuring of the company impact the settlement of Jamestown in 1611
  • Explain and Expand: “In the first six months after De La Warr’s arrival, one-third of the settlers had sickened and died or were killed by the Indians.”

Primary Sources

Articles and Resources

The Jazz Age Great Depression New Deal Era and World War 2 America

Chapter 1: Community and Family :: Cannery Women, Cannery Lives: Mexican Women, Unionization, and the California Food Processing Industry, 1930-1950 by Vicki L. Ruiz

Response / Thought Quotes

  • “By 1930 Los Angeles had the largest concentration of Mexicans in the United States, and by 1940 only Mexico City could claim a greater number of Mexican inhabitants. Spanish-speaking communities throughout southern California grew at a phenomenal pace during the early decades of the twentieth century. In 1900 only 3,000 to 5,000 Mexicans lived in Los Angeles, but by 1930 approximately 150,000 persons of Mexican birth or heritage had settled into the city’s expanding barrios.1 Los Angeles firms employed one-half of the state’s Mexican industrial labor force, and two-thirds of California’s Mexican population resided in five southern counties. On a national level, by 1930 Mexicans formed the “third largest ‘racial’ group,” outnumbered only by Anglos and blacks.”
  • “Women contributed to the family income through their seasonal labor in agriculture and food processing, and many were employed in the growing service sector associated with California tourism. Mexicanas also performed a variety of home tasks for pay, taking in sewing, washing, ironing, and boarders. Some practiced the art of curanderismo (or folk healing) as a means of economic, as well as cultural, survival.”
  • “In Los Angeles, the old “Sonoratown,” pushed by the commercialization of the downtown area, gradually declined as a residential section. In its stead, suburban barrios grew up east of the Los Angeles River.”
  • “Between 1931 and 1934, rhetoric exploded into action as an estimated one-third of the Mexican population in the United States was either deported or repatriated to Mexico even though many had been born in this country. Mexicans were the only immigrants to be targeted for removal. The proximity of the U.S.–Mexico border, as well as the physical distinctiveness of mestizo peoples, fostered the belief that Mexican immigrants could be easily identified and—perhaps more important—inexpensively transported back to their homeland. Mexicans were viewed alternatively as foreign usurpers of American jobs and as unworthy burdens on local relief rolls.”
  • “Yet, the threat of deportation did not touch all Mexican families equally. Historian Camille Guerin-Gonzáles argues that farm workers newly arrived in Los Angeles from rural California were more likely candidates for removal than long-term urban residents. The food processing workers I have interviewed certainly were aware of the fear permeating the barrios, but their own families were not directly affected.”
  • “Red bandannas [sic] I detest, And now the flappers Use them for their dress. The girls of San Antonio Are lazy at the metate. They want to walk out bobbed-haired, With straw hats on. The harvesting is finished, So is the cotton; The flappers stroll out now For a good time.”
  • “I fought with my parents . . . but I didn’t try to sneak out because I didn’t want our neighbors to talk about me the way they talked about some other girls. That kind of chisme would hurt my family.”
  • “Like many female factory workers in the United States as well as in England and France, most Mexican cannery operatives were young single daughters who lived at home and contributed all or part of their pay checks to the family income … Teenage daughters often entered the labor market first, followed by their mothers if additional income was needed.”
  • “The wages garnered by Mexican women industrial operatives were modest; those employed in canneries and packing houses averaged from $2.30 to $2.70 per day. In contrast, their male counterparts received from $3.50 to $4.50 per day. Yet, the earnings of Mexican women food processing personnel were comparable to those garnered by immigrant women on the East Coast. In 1930, for example, the median weekly wage of immigrant women workers in Philadelphia (primarily Jews, Poles, and Italians) was $15.35, or $2.56 per day.”
  • ““I wanted to be a housewife, but I wanted to work. I wanted to see the world . . . I didn’t have any intentions of just . . . getting married . . . and raising kids . . . and being behind the stove. That was out of my line. I didn’t believe in that.”56 Motivations for married women’s employment were certainly as diverse as the women themselves and defy easy categorization.”
  • “While English and French wives often withdrew from the labor force to manage the family income, Mexican and European ethnic wives in the United States (particularly if second generation) continued working so as to accumulate extra funds.”
  • “While one woman might rationalize her wage-earning role as an extension of her family responsibilities, her U.S. born daughter might visualize her own income as an avenue to independence.”

Thought Questions

  • Explain and Expand: “Barrio life nurtured traditional values and customs. The barrio, like the family, offered security and refuge”
  • Explain and Expand: “a dynamic entity which fosters a sense of self-respect and dignity.”
  • Explain and Expand: “Ethnic pride as exhibited in secular and religious groups served as a psychological bulwark against the grinding poverty experienced by the majority of barrio residents in southern California.”
  • Explain and Expand: “the rebirth of the Ku Klux Klan”
  • Explain and Expand: “The impact of flapper styles on the Mexican community”
  • Explain and Expand: “Though times were lean, many women had dreams of fame and fortune, nurtured in part by their proximity to Hollywood.”
  • Explain and Expand: “Viewed within the construct of a family wage economy, women’s outside employment was an extension of their role in the family.”
  • Explain and Expand: “For some women, however, wages were not supplements to family income. As female heads of households, Mexican women depended on their meager earnings to support not only their children but also their parents.”
  • Explain and Expand: “While most youthful Mexican Americans maintained their cultural identity, many yearned for more freedom, particularly after noticing the more liberal lifestyles of self-supporting Anglo coworkers.”
  • Explain and Expand: “Thus, the household could no longer be characterized as a family wage economy, but as a family consumer economy”
  • Explain and Expand: “items perceived as conferring American respectability. … Sometimes the desire to become “good Americans” resulted in a rejection of Mexican identity.”
  • Explain and Expand: “Mexican women sought employment in food processing firms for a multitude of reasons depending on age, generation, and marital status.”

Primary Sources

Articles and Resources

Further Reading

 

Historical Primary Source

The Potsdam Declaration – July 26, 1945

Proclamation Defining Terms for Japanese Surrender
Issued, at Potsdam, July 26, 1945

  1. We-the President of the United States, the President of the National Government of the Republic of China, and the Prime Minister of Great Britain, representing the hundreds of millions of our countrymen, have conferred and agree that Japan shall be given an opportunity to end this war.
  2. The prodigious land, sea and air forces of the United States, the British Empire and of China, many times reinforced by their armies and air fleets from the west, are poised to strike the final blows upon Japan. This military power is sustained and inspired by the determination of all the Allied Nations to prosecute the war against Japan until she ceases to resist.
  3. The result of the futile and senseless German resistance to the might of the aroused free peoples of the world stands forth in awful clarity as an example to the people of Japan. The might that now converges on Japan is immeasurably greater than that which, when applied to the resisting Nazis, necessarily laid waste to the lands, the industry and the method of life of the whole German people. The full application of our military power, backed by our resolve, will mean the inevitable and complete destruction of the Japanese armed forces and just as inevitably the utter devastation of the Japanese homeland.
  4. The time has come for Japan to decide whether she will continue to be controlled by those self-willed militaristic advisers whose unintelligent calculations have brought the Empire of Japan to the threshold of annihilation, or whether she will follow the path of reason.
  5. Following are our terms. We will not deviate from them. There are no alternatives. We shall brook no delay.
  6. There must be eliminated for all time the authority and influence of those who have deceived and misled the people of Japan into embarking on world conquest, for we insist that a new order of peace, security and justice will be impossible until irresponsible militarism is driven from the world.
  7. Until such a new order is established and until there is convincing proof that Japan’s war-making power is destroyed, points in Japanese territory to be designated by the Allies shall be occupied to secure the achievement of the basic objectives we are here setting forth.
  8. The terms of the Cairo Declaration shall be carried out and Japanese sovereignty shall be limited to the islands of Honshu, Hokkaido, Kyushu, Shikoku and such minor islands as we determine.
  9. The Japanese military forces, after being completely disarmed, shall be permitted to return to their homes with the opportunity to lead peaceful and productive lives.
  10. We do not intend that the Japanese shall be enslaved as a race or destroyed as a nation, but stern justice shall be meted out to all war criminals, including those who have visited cruelties upon our prisoners. The Japanese Government shall remove all obstacles to the revival and strengthening of democratic tendencies among the Japanese people. Freedom of speech, of religion, and of thought, as well as respect for the fundamental human rights shall be established.
  11. Japan shall be permitted to maintain such industries as will sustain her economy and permit the exaction of just reparations in kind, but not those which would enable her to re-arm for war. To this end, access to, as distinguished from control of, raw materials shall be permitted. Eventual Japanese participation in world trade relations shall be permitted.
  12. The occupying forces of the Allies shall be withdrawn from Japan as soon as these objectives have been accomplished and there has been established in accordance with the freely expressed will of the Japanese people a peacefully inclined and responsible government.
  13. We call upon the government of Japan to proclaim now the unconditional surrender of all Japanese armed forces, and to provide proper and adequate assurances of their good faith in such action. The alternative for Japan is prompt and utter destruction.
(The Ministry of Foreign Affairs “Nihon Gaiko Nenpyo Narabini Shuyo Bunsho : 1840-1945” vol.2, 1966)
The American Early Republic and Frontier Era History

Chapter 8 (Part 4) :: What Hath God Wrought: The Transformation of America, 1815-1848 by Daniel Walker Howe

Response / Thought Quotes

  • “The Puritan-pietistic religious tradition so powerful in America had perpetuated and disseminated millennialism in the United States. Catholic rejection of the doctrine of the millennium affected the attitude of the church in America in at least two ways. It meant that the church lacked the millennial sense of urgency, widespread among evangelical Protestants, to remake the world and fit it for Christ’s return; it also meant that Catholics did not share in the belief that the United States had a special role, analogous to that of ancient Israel , as an example of divine providence to the rest of the world. While Protestant churches synthesized Christianity with the Enlightenment’s science, individual rights, and faith in progress, the nineteenth-century Church of Rome did not. In an age when Americans’ belief in progress was typically associated with millennial hopes, Catholic doctrine accepted neither the idea of secular progress nor the millennium.”
  • “Nat Turner listened to “the Spirit that spoke to the prophets in former days” and interpreted signs of divinity in the world around him. Like Isaiah, he heard the Spirit tell him to “proclaim liberty to the captives” and “the day of vengeance of our God” (Isaiah 61: 1– 2). Turner decided that “the great day of judgment was at hand,” when he would become God’s instrument.”
  • “Conservatives conceded that the state would be better off with fewer slaves and a more industrial-commercial economy, but argued that the domestic slave trade would suffice to drain off surplus black laborers from Virginia to the trans-Appalachian Southwest, without legislative intervention.”

Thought Questions

  • Explain and Expand: “Alone among major religious denominations in the antebellum United States, the Roman Catholic Church did not teach the doctrine of the millennium.”
  • Explain and Expand: “When a politically conservative association in the Austrian Empire set about raising funds to proselytize for Catholicism in the United States, it set off alarm bells among certain American evangelicals.”
  • Explain and Expand: “Morse’s strident warnings were among the earliest expressions of a movement known as nativism that would become more powerful after Catholic immigration increased during the late 1840s.”
  • Explain and Expand: “In the wee hours of Monday, August 22, 1831, a trusted family slave climbed through the window of his master’s house and unbarred the door for six companions armed with axes.”
  • Explain and Expand: “Turner’s Uprising provoked a huge debate among white Virginians over what lessons they should draw from it.”
  • Explain and Expand: “A Calhoun Democrat, like his Carolina mentor he had long backed public funding for internal improvements.”

Primary Sources

Articles and Resources

Further Reading

The American Early Republic and Frontier Era History

Chapter 8 (Part 3) :: What Hath God Wrought: The Transformation of America, 1815-1848 by Daniel Walker Howe

Response / Thought Quotes

  • “True or not, the Book of Mormon is a powerful epic written on a grand scale with a host of characters, a narrative of human struggle and conflict, of divine intervention, heroic good and atrocious evil, of prophecy, morality, and law. Its narrative structure is complex. The idiom is that of the King James Version, which most Americans assumed to be appropriate for a divine revelation.”
  • “He continued to receive revelations from God (sometimes using a seer-stone) that amplified what was in the Book of Mormon and provided guidance to the faithful; these the LDS Church has codified as their Doctrine and Covenants.”
  • “They tended to be people of New England birth or heritage, carrying the cultural baggage of folk Puritanism (as distinguished from Calvinist theology): communalism, chiliasm, identification with ancient Israel, and the practice of magic. Often they had been involved in other Christian restorationist movements, but no particular denominational background predominated. The prophet and his followers perpetuated traditions of a culture, Richard Bushman explains, “in which the sacred and the profane intermingled and the Saints enjoyed supernatural gifts and powers as the frequent blessing of an interested God.””
  • “The Mormons did not passively await Christ’s millennial kingdom but worked to prepare for it. Their brand of premillennialism was as activist as any postmillennialism, and even more certain of a special millennial role for America.”
  • “His notorious order to the militia of October 27, 1838, reads: “The Mormons must be treated as enemies, and must be exterminated or driven from the State if necessary for the public peace.””
  • “The militia commander ordered Joseph Smith shot after a brief illegal court-martial, but the officer charged with the execution refused to carry it out. Turned over to the civil authorities, the prophet escaped custody five months later and joined his refugee people on the Illinois side of the Mississippi River. There they immediately turned their faith and talents to building up another new community, larger and more beautiful, which they named Nauvoo.”

Thought Questions

  • What is millennialism? What is restorationism?
  • What was the “burned-over district” of western New York state
  • Who was Joseph Smith Jr.?
  • Describe the founding of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints during Smith’s leadership
  • Explain and Expand: “in 1831 the Saints moved into the Western Reserve area of northeastern Ohio, to a town called Kirtland.”
  • Explain and Expand: “For the next several years there would be two centers of Mormon settlement, one in Ohio and one in Missouri.”
  • Explain and Expand: “The speculation that American Indians constituted some of the Lost Tribes of Israel had been expressed by many writers over the years and was current in Smith’s milieu. Native Americans themselves sometimes endorsed the Lost Tribes theory of their origins.”
  • What was “the Word of Wisdom” and how did it impact the development of the latter day saints?
  • How did the economic crisis of 1837 impact the development of the latter day saints?
  • Describe the process that created the Mormon War of 1838?
  • Describe the events of the Mormon War of 1838
  • How was millennialism connected to the founding of the latter day saints?
  • In what ways did American “exceptionalism” impact the founding of the latter day saints?
  • In what ways did American “manifest destiny” impact the founding of the latter day saints?
  • Who was Alexander Campbell?
  • Who was Charles Finney?
  • Compare and Contrast: Charles Finney, Alexander Campbell and Joseph Smith Jr.
  • Compare and Contrast: Pre-millennialism and Post-millennialism
  • Explain and Expand: “premillennialism appealing to the disinherited of this world”

Primary Sources

Articles and Resources

Further Reading

 

The American Early Republic and Frontier Era History

Chapter 8 (Part 2) :: What Hath God Wrought: The Transformation of America, 1815-1848 by Daniel Walker Howe

Response / Thought Quotes

  • “All contemporaries on both sides of the Atlantic saw him as an emissary of liberal values between New and Old Worlds; Americans regarded him as an agent of their international mission. The president had invited Lafayette in order to affirm his Monroe Doctrine’s defiance of the Holy Alliance and to celebrate his Era of Good Feelings. The event succeeded beyond his dreams.”
  • “Tocqueville was very quick to generalize from his experiences, and for all his insight, his interpretations have their limitations. In praising America’s strong traditions of local self-government, he seemed not to notice how often local democracy tyrannized individuals.”
  • “a man of violent temper and very moderate talents.”
  • “She criticized the United States for not living up to its ideals, in particular in its oppression of black people and in the “political nonexistence” of women.”
  • “She conceived an ambitious plan to make Cincinnati a more lively, cosmopolitan city by constructing a building something like a modern shopping mall plus cultural center and ballroom, which she called a “Bazaar.””
  • “Years later, Mark Twain would declare that “candid Mrs. Trollope” deserved American gratitude for her forthrightness. “She knew her subject well, and she set it forth fairly and squarely.” But his observation, made in Life on the Mississippi, was suppressed.”

Thought Questions

  • Explain and Expand: “Contemporaries viewed not only utopian communities but all America as an experimental society”
  • Compare and Contrast: 19th century American “exceptionalism” with varieties of 19th century European “exceptionalism”
  • In what ways was the visit of the Marquis de Lafayette symbolic of the age of “exceptionalism”
  • Who was Samuel F. B. Morse
  • Explain and Expand: “Foreign observers also often viewed the United States as an indicator of future developments in their own countries. The German philosopher Hegel called America “the land of the future” and predicted that “in the time to come, the center of world-historical importance will be revealed there.””
  • Explain and Expand: “What Tocqueville meant by “democracy” was not simply political (“ one man, one vote”) but broadly social: “equality of condition.””
  • In what ways did newspapers contribute to American “exceptionalism”
  • Explain and Expand: “Above all, Tocqueville recognized the crucial importance of America’s numerous and diverse voluntary associations.”
  • Who was Gustave de Beaumont?
  • Who was Harriet Martineau?
  • Who was Frances (Fanny) Wright?
  • Compare and Contrast: Frances Wright and Harriet Martineau
  • In what ways was communal experimentation connected to various forms of evangelical millennialism?
  • Who was Robert Owen?
  • Who was Frances Trollope?
  • Explain and Expand: “persuaded Parliament to make the Atlantic slave trade illegal”
  • Explain and Expand: “American opposition to slavery owed a good deal to encouragement from overseas.”
  • Who was Maria Weston Chapman?

Primary Sources

Articles and Resources

World War 2 National Socialism and the Holocaust

Chapter 3: A Cruel Romance: The Nazi-Soviet Alliance And Soviet Expansion, August To November 1939 – Absolute War: Soviet Russia in the Second World War by Chris Bellamy

Response / Thought Quotes

  • “Until 1933, long-term cooperation between Germany and the Soviet Union was far from unthinkable. Hitler’s accession changed that, but cooperation was still necessary in the short term. Nor, at the time, did it seem so absurd. Politics, like the world, is round. If you go far enough west, you reach the ‘far east’. And, if you travel far to the political ‘left’ or ‘right’, you end up in the same place: some form of totalitarian dictatorship where state security is not only paramount, but actually threatens the very people whose lives, liberties and aspirations the state exists to protect. So it was with National Socialism under Hitler and Soviet communism under Stalin.”
  • “The struggle against the Jewish Bolshevisation of the world demands that we should declare our position towards Soviet Russia. We cannot cast out the devil through Beelzebub… the future goal of our foreign policy ought not to involve an orientation to the East or West; but it ought to be an eastern policy which will have in view the acquisition of such territory as is necessary for our German people. 18 The last sentence encapsulates Hitler’s desire for Lebensraum (living space)”
  • “In all, 3 out of 5 Marshals of the Soviet Union died, 3 out of 5 Army Commanders (komandarm), First Class, all 10 Second Class, 50 out of 57 Corps Commanders (komkor), 154 out of 186 Divisional Commanders (komdiv), 401 out of 456 colonels, plus almost all corps and divisional commissars.”
  • “The Soviet Union’s ruling elite probably, and not unreasonably, thought that the West was willing to let Hitler get away with anything as long as he delivered on the promise, made in Mein Kampf, to eliminate Bolshevism.”
  • “In the face of such consummate diplomacy, on 14 August 1939 Marshal Voroshilov declared that ‘without clear and unambiguous answers to these questions, further negotiations are pointless. The Soviet military delegation cannot recommend that its government participate in an undertaking so clearly doomed to failure.’ Compared with this sorry state of affairs, the proposal which had come from Germany seemed to be a breath of fresh air.”
  • “Either Molotov was playing a cynical game, or he really had little idea what the Red Army was up to, or the Soviets were trying desperately to organize a military response. Reports of the state of the Soviet forces which moved into Poland suggest the latter is probably the case.”
  • “Russian military administration remains much as it used to be. Train timings are chaotic, motor transport is seldom available at the right time and place, petrol supplies break down, and no one has any clear idea at what time anything is going to arrive. In spite of it all something happens … the Red Army was faced with hardly any opposition, so … the defects in administration did not have their full effect, but even so one is left with the impression that the Russian genius for piecemeal improvisation will always carry them through to a strictly limited extent.”
  • “The weakness of leadership and of the administrative machine are evidently still very serious, and combined with the apathy and loss of initiative of the rank and file, must render the army a somewhat amorphous mass which may be capable of taking hard blows but is not capable of delivering them, at any rate when faced with a large scale organised opposition.”

Thought Questions

  • Describe the development of the agreements between Nazi Germany and Stalinist Russia regarding spheres of influence generally and the division of Poland specifically
  • What logic was Germany following in developing the Molotov – Ribbentrop Pact
  • What logic was Russia following in developing the Molotov – Ribbentrop Pact
  • What were the seven articles of the Molotov – Ribbentrop Pact?
  • What were the purposes of the secret protocols attached to the pact?
  • In what ways was the protocol exchanging the Lithuania area for a Polish area significant
  • Affirm or Refute: “The biggest and worst war in history had become inevitable when Adolf Hitler became Chancellor of Germany in 1933.”
  • Explain and Expand: “Nor did the leaders who exercised unprecedented power over these self-confident superstates appear so different from one another.”
  • Explain and Expand: “Ribbentrop’s foreign policy goals were more traditionally German”
  • What was The German Condor Legion
  • How did the Spanish Civil War impact informal and formal relations between Russia and Germany
  • Explain and Expand: “For the victors of the First World War, the Soviet Union was potentially a greater threat than a resurgent Germany.”
  • What was the 1938 Munich agreement and how did it impact relations between Russia and the West
  • What international ‘collective security’ arrangements were in place in 1939
  • Describe the post 1938 negotiations between Russia and the western powers
  • Explain and Expand: “was at this meeting that the idea of a non- aggression pact was first raised.”
  • Describe the Soviet 1939 invasion of Poland by Russia
  • Who was Lavrentiy Pavlovich Beria?
  • What was a Russian ‘Operational-Chekist’ group and what role did they perform in Poland
  • What role did prisoner of war slavery have in the destruction of Poland
  • Explain and Expand: “As a result of the observations in Poland and the Baltic States, most foreigners believed that ‘the value of the Red Army for war remains low’.”

Primary Sources

Articles and Resources

Further Reading

History Primary Source

Woodrow Wilson – Proclamation 1445—Decoration Day, 1918 – May 11, 1918

By the President of the United States of America

A Proclamation

Whereas, the Congress of the United States, on the second day of April last, passed the following resolution:

“Resolved by the Senate (the House of Representatives concurring), That, it being a duty peculiarly incumbent in a time of war humbly and devoutly to acknowledge our dependence on Almighty God and to implore His aid and protection, the President of the United States be, and he is hereby, respectfully requested to recommend a day of public humiliation, prayer, and fasting, to be observed by the people of the United States with religious solemnity and the offering of fervent supplications to Almighty God for the safety and welfare of our cause, His blessings on our arms, and a speedy restoration of an honorable and lasting peace to the nations of the earth;”

And Whereas, it has always been the reverent habit of the people of the United States to turn in humble appeal to Almighty God for His guidance in the affairs of their common life;

Now, Therefore, I, Woodrow Wilson, President of the United States of America, do hereby proclaim Thursday, the thirtieth day of May, a day already freighted with sacred and stimulating memories, a day of public humiliation, prayer and fasting, and do exhort my fellow-citizens of all faiths and creeds to assemble on that day in their several places of worship and there, as well as in their homes, to pray Almighty God that He may forgive our sins and shortcomings as a people and purify our hearts to see and love the truth, to accept and defend all things that are just and right, and to purpose only those righteous acts and judgments which are in conformity with His will; beseeching Him that He will give victory to our armies as they fight for freedom, wisdom to those who take counsel on our behalf in these days of dark struggle and perplexity, and steadfastness to our people to make sacrifice to the utmost in support of what is just and true, bringing us at last the peace in which men’s hearts can be at rest because it is founded upon mercy, justice and good will.

In Witness Whereof, I have hereunto set my hand and caused the seal of the United States to be affixed.

Done in the District of Columbia this eleventh day of May, in the year of our Lord Nineteen hundred and eighteen and of the independence of the United States the one hundred and forty-second.

WOODROW WILSON

By the President,

Robert Lansing 
Secretary of State.

The American Revolutionary Era Reading and Study Group

Chapter 8: The Making of an American Revolution, 1772–1776 (Parts 3-4) :: From Resistance to Revolution by Pauline Maier

Response / Thought Quotes

  • “… let us frustrate their present desperate and wicked attempt to destroy America, by joining with our injured fellow subjects, and bravely striking one honest and bold strike to destroy them … let us not leave the pursuit till we have their heads and their estates.”
  • “asserting “that freedom will triumph in this country, over all its enemies,” such that “the Americans will soon be objects of universal admiration and applause,” kindling the spirit of liberty in other nations “until the most servile kindreds of the earth will be warmed into freedom.””
  • “If persecuted in the cities, the Americans could flee into the country and carry on the fight. Then, too, the Americans had weapons and were practiced in their use, unlike the average Englishmen, who had been disarmed by law. Certainly, thousands of “brave musqueteering Americans” were unmatched by the British army of 1775, described as “a number of mercenary, hacknied, tattered regiments, patched up by the most abandoned and debauched of mankind, the scum of the nation, the dregs of Irish and Scottish desperados.””
  • “If America is an humble instrument of the salvation of Britain, it will give us the sincerest joy; but, if Britain must lose her liberty, she must lose it alone.”
  • ““The Time is come,” he wrote William Palfrey in July 1774, “… that we are independent. By the passing of the late Acts in the British Parliament, every Tye is cut, and we set adrift.” In September of 1774, Patrick Henry also told the Continental Congress that government was dissolved and “we are in a state of nature.” The outbreak of war in 1775 led more people to the same conclusion.”

Thought Questions

  • In what ways did colonial leaders seek to involve the Irish in the cause against Britain
  • Compare and Contrast: the support for the American cause in the urban centers of Dublin and London
  • Compare and Contrast: the reaction of the rural poor in Britain and Ireland with the reaction of the urban poor
  • Compare and Contrast: the reaction of the gentry in Britain and Ireland to the American cause
  • What circumstances created the pauses between the outbreak of political rebellion in 1774, military rebellion in 1775 and the declaration of independence in 1776

Primary Sources

Colonial American History - The Atlantic and Pacific Worlds - New Spain and New France - British America

Chapter 2: Death on a Coastal Fringe (Section 3-5) :: The Barbarous Years: The Peopling of British North America: The Conflict of Civilizations, 1600-1675 by Bernard Bailyn

Response / Thought Quotes

  • “They called this quasi- island Jamestown, and on May 14, 1607, they unloaded their men and equipment, threw together tents and huts behind a brushwood barrier, and set about building “a triangular palisade of posts, rails, and poles, with bulwarks at the corners where cannon were mounted.” The three years that followed was a period of violent dissension within the tiny palisaded settlement, confusion of purpose, physical devastation, and the emergence of a permanent pattern of race conflict. Death was everywhere.”
  • “By August, three months after the expedition’s arrival, the settlers in their small encampment were facing annihilation. The indispensable and inspirational organizer Bartholomew Gosnold died on August 22, one of dozens whose names George Percy recorded despondently day after day—victims, he explained, “of the bloudie flixe … of the swelling … of a wound”—in sum, of many “cruell diseases … and by Warrs … but for the most part they died of meere famine.” The groans “in every corner of the fort [were] most pittifull to heare,” he wrote; it made one’s heart “bleed to heare the pittiful murmurings and out-cries of our sick men.” Some fled to the Indians to avoid starvation, but soon straggled back from that strange world. For six weeks, until some relief came in from the Indians, three or four died each night, and “in the morning their bodies [were] trailed out of their cabines like dogges to be buried.” By September, 46 of the 104 settlers had died, and among the survivors there were not 6 able-bodied men. By January 2, 1608, when Newport arrived back from England in one of the two vessels of the “first supply,” only 38 were still alive—and only barely alive.”
  • “he knew there was a scattering of several hundred Algonquian villages, organized into some thirty chiefdoms, each village with less than one hundred souls, totaling perhaps fifteen thousand people. They were led, with imperfect authority, by the “chief of chiefs,” Powhatan and his warrior brother Opechancanough”
  • “Two episodes, minuscule events in a confused world, seemingly mere curiosities in the bloody struggles for survival, reveal the mutuality, the parallelism, of hopes and expectations, reasonable in themselves but that would prove to be contradictory, ultimately the source of bitter conflict.”
  • “These were calm passages in a tumultuous sea of uncertainty and conflict. And there were others. Young boys were exchanged on both sides, to learn the languages, the “designs,” and the ways of life of the other people.”
  • “Smith, in his Elizabethan love of drama and pageantry, may have relished the feasts and ceremonies, but most of his contacts with the natives were ruthless raids on their villages to extract corn and other supplies for the starving settlers. When his demands were not met, he threatened murder, took hostages at gunpoint, “negotiated” by intimidation, and without hesitation seized from the natives precious supplies that were necessary for their tribes’ survival. Believing the Indians to be inherently barbarous, he attributed to them deceits and plots they did not have and provoked them in ways they did not understand.”
  • “Then the ultimate catastrophes began. A few of the “gastely and pale” inhabitants of the fort— we do not know how many— did “those things w[ hi] ch seame incredible, as to digge upp deade corp[ s] es outt of graves and to eate them… and some have Licked upp the Bloode w[ hi] ch hathe fallen from their weake fellowes.” And even beyond that, Percy wrote, one man murdered his wife, “Ripped the Childe outt of her woambe… Chopped the Mother in pieces and sallted her for his foode.” Forced to confess “by torture haveinge hunge by the Thumbes w[ i] th weightes att his feete a quarter of an howere,” the murderer was executed. Many of those who “To eate… did Runn away unto the Salvages” fared no better: “we never heard of [them] after.””

Thought Questions

  • What was the organization of the company that sent the Jamestown Colonists?
  • What were the instructions, principle objectives and advice issued to the Jamestown Colonists?
  • How did religious circumstances generally and Catholic missionaries particularly impact the initial Jamestown settlement plan and Colonists?
  • Describe the initial contact and reactions between the Chickahominy Indians and the Jamestown settlers and Colonists.
  • Explain and Expand: “Partly the confusion was generated by conflicts of purpose.”
  • Describe the condition of the Jamestown settlement at by the time of the first relief shipment and how this condition came about
  • Describe the first relief shipment and how it impacted the Jamestown settlement
  • In what ways did John Smith contribute to European knowledge of the Chesapeake and New England. What were the strengths and weaknesses of this knowledge?
  • How did John Smith’s knowledge of the Chesapeake and New England impact future English settlement?
  • Who are the Chickahominies?
  • Who were the Monocans?
  • In what ways did the experience of the English in Ireland impact the Jamestown settlement
  • Describe the decline in relations between the Jamestown settlement and the Chickahominies
  • Explain and Expand: “By such means a marginal survival was preserved”
  • Explain and Expand: “The Indians were not even bothering to attack the protected blockhouse since they assumed the people within it would shortly perish.”
  • Describe the setting leading up to the First Anglo- Powhatan War

Articles and Resources

1 2 3 17